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Daily Prelims Test – 02_July

1.Consider the following statements with respect to State of the World Population Report 2020

  • It is an annual report from UN Women
  • According to this report, India accounts for one in three girls missing globally due to sex selection, both pre- and post-natal.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:46 million girls went missing in India, says UNFPA report

  • India accounts for one in three girls,missing globally due to sex selection, both pre- and post-natal.According to the UNFPA’s State of the World Population 2020 report, India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s 142.6 million missing females over the past 50 years.Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The State of World Population 2020 report was released recently by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
  • The figure shows that the number of missing women has more than doubled over the past 50 years, who were at 61 million in 1970.
  • It is an annual report from UNFPA, the United Nations sexual and reproductive health aHence, statement 1 is incorrect.

Excess Female Mortality:

  • Excess female mortality is the difference between observed and expected mortality of the girl child or avoidable death of girls during childhood.
  • The report examines the issue of missing women by studying sex ratio imbalances at birth as a result of gender-biased sex selection as well as excess female mortality due to deliberate neglect of girls because of a culture of son preference.
  • India has the highest rate of excess female deaths at 13.5 per 1,000 female births or one in nine deaths of females below the age of 5 due to postnatal sex selection.
  • The excess female mortality of girls below 5 years of age in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan was under 3 %.
Picture5-Jul-07-2020-08-22-25-83-AM

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/46-million-girls-went-missing-in-india/article31957348.ece

2.Consider the following statements with respect to United Nations Population Fund

  • It is the lead UN agency for delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every child birth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.
  • The mandate of UNFPA is established by the United Nation Development Group

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:46 million girls went missing in India, says UNFPA report

About UNFPA

  • UNFPA is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency. It was established as a trust fund in 1967 and began operations in 1969.
  • In 1987, it was officially renamed the United Nations Population Fund. However, the original abbreviation, UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities), was retained.
  • UNFPA is the lead UN agency for delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person’spotential is fulfilled. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The mandate of UNFPA is established by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).Hence, statement 2 is incorrect.
  • UNFPA is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly.
  • Their work involves the improvement of reproductive health; including the creation of national strategies and protocols, and birth control by providing supplies and services.
  • It is known for the worldwide campaign against child marriage, obstetric fistula and female genital mutilation.
  • UNFPA works directly to tackle Sustainable Development Goal 3 on health, Goal 4 on education and Goal 5 on gender equality.
  • The funds for UNFPA are completely supported by voluntary contributions.The funds are not associated with the United Nations regular budget.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/46-million-girls-went-missing-in-india/article31957348.ece

3.Consider the following statements

  • India’s marine fish production registered a marginal increase of 2.1% in 2019 compared with the previous year
  • Based on annual marine fish landings estimates in the country,  Keralatook the first position in landings with 7.75 lakh tones.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Marginal increase in India’s marine fish production

  • According to the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), the country recorded 3.56 million tonnes in total landings during the year.
  • India’s marine fish production registered a marginal increase of 2.1% in 2019 compared to the previous year.Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • Tamil Nadu took the first position in landings with 7.75 lakhtonnes, followed by Gujarat (7.49 lakh tonnes) and Kerala (5.44 lakh tonnes).Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The data showed an unusual feature of a commercially unimportant fish becoming the most landed resource with the red toothed trigger fish (2.74 lakh t)
  • In another major highlight of the data, Indian mackerel, which was in the first spot in 2018, suffered the highest setback with its landings declining by 43 per cent during the last year.
  • The second highest landings in national-level is ribbon fish (2.19 lakh t) followed by penaeid prawns (1.95 lakh t) and non-penaeid prawns (1.80 lakh t).
Picture6-4

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/marginal-increase-in-indias-marine-fish-production/article31957842.ece

4.Consider the following statements

  • G4 virus is a new strain of virus that has descended from the H1N1 (swine flu) Influenza
  • Swine flu virus normally infects humans.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: The G4 flu virus with ‘pandemic potential’, found by Chinese researchers?

  • G4 virus is a new strain of virus that has descended from the H1N1 Influenzathat was responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic.Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • They also found that the G4 strain has the capability of binding to human-type receptors (like, the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE2 receptors in humans), was able to copy itself in human airway epithelial cells, and it showed effective infectivity and aerosol transmission in ferrets.
  • However,the virus hasn’t shown evidence of human-to-human transmission so far.
  • The scientists suggest that controlling the prevailing G4 Eurasian-Avian like (EA) H1N1 viruses in pigs and closely monitoring human populations, especially workers in the swine industry, should be “urgently implemented”.

About Swine flu H1N1 Influenza

  • Swine flu virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus.
  • Swine flu virus does not normally infect humans.However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred.Hence, statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Symptoms: Cough, nasal secretions, fever, loss of appetite, fatigue, and headache.
  • It is transmitted by exposure to infected droplets expelled by coughing or sneezing or through contact to contaminate hands or surfaces.
  • The WHO declared the outbreak of type A H1N1 influenza virus a pandemic in 2009 when there were around 30,000 cases globally.

Source:https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-g4-flu-virus-with-pandemic-potential-found-by-chinese-researchers-6483634/

5.Consider the following

  • Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure
  • River-Front Development
  • Ganga Gram
  • Bio Diversity
  • Afforestation

Which of the above actions are the main pillars of the Namami Gange Programme?

  • 1,2 and 3 only
  • 1 ,4 and 5 only
  • 3,4 and 5 only
  • 1,2,3,4 and 5

Answer: (d) 1,2,3,4 and 5

Explanation:

In NEWS:World Bank approves fresh funds for Ganga cleaning mission

  • The World Bank has approved a five-year loan to the Namami Gange project worth ₹3,000 crores to develop and improve infrastructure projects to abate pollution in the river basin.
  • The Namami Ganga or the National Mission for Clean Ganga has already received ₹4,535 crores ($600 million) from the World Bank until December 2021 as part of the first phase of the National Ganga River Basin project.
  • So far, 313 projects worth ₹25,000 crores have been sanctioned under the mission.
  • The projects to be undertaken under the second phase of the mission include spillover projects from the first phase of the mission as well as cleaning projects in tributaries such as the Yamuna and Kali rivers.
  • In the second phase, the loan would fund ₹1,134 crores ($150 million) for three new Hybrid Annuity Projects in Agra, Meerut and Saharanpur for the tributaries of the Ganga.

About Namami Gange Programme

  • ‘Namami Gange Programme’, is an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in June 2014 with budget outlay of Rs.20,000 Crore to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
  • It is an Integrated Conservation Mission under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.All the given options are correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/world-bank-approves-fresh-funds-for-ganga-cleaning-mission/article31957115.ece

https://nmcg.nic.in/NamamiGanga.aspx

6.Gangotri National Park is located on which of the following river in India?

Bhagirathi river

Alaknanda River

Sharda River

Gori Ganga River

Answer: (a) Bhagirathi river

Explanation:

In NEWS:Uttarakhand govt clears forest land transfer to build roads near China border

  • The Uttarakhand government has cleared diversion of about 70 hectares of forest land in the Gangotri National Park for construction of three strategically important roads to China border.
  • The road proposals cleared include preserving the GartangGali road in the Uttarkashi district, an ancient road between India and Tibet.
  • The wildlife clearance proposal has been given for three roads passing through Gangotri National Park which includes an 11.85 km long road from Sumla to Thangla for which transfer of 30.39 hectares of forest land was approved.
  • These proposals will now be sent to National Board for Wildlife for final approval.

About Gangotri National Park

  • Gangotri National Park is located in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.Hence option (a) is correct
  • It covers about 2,390 km2 and its habitat consists of coniferous forests, alpine meadows and glaciers.
  • The Gaumukh glacier, the origin of river Ganges is located inside the park.
  • The park is located in the upper catchment of Bhagirathi river. The northeastern park boundary is located along the international boundary with China.
  • The park area forms a viable continuity between Govind National Park and Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It is home to the snow leopard, various mammal species and 150 bird species.

Source:https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/uttarakhand-govt-clears-forest-land-transfer-to-build-roads-near-china-border/story-5zAgMiDVTfqoTKrsKfptHM.html

7.Consider the following statements with respect to Central Zoo Authority (CZA)

It is a statutory body chaired by the Union Minister for Environment , Forest and Climate Change

It aims to enforce minimum standards and norms to upkeep and health care of animals in Indian zoos, laid down under the Recognition of Zoo Rules, 1992

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Ministry reconstitutes Central Zoo Authority

  • The Ministry of Environment has reconstituted the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) to include an expert from the School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi, and a molecular biologist.
  • From June 1, the CZA has allowed zoos to take a call on opening them to visitors.
  • In May, concerns were raised whether animals, particularly big cats, could be a source of transmission of COVID-19 after reports emerged of a tiger in New York’s Bronx Zoo testing positive. Following that, the CZA issued an advisory for enhanced surveillance.

About Central Zoo Authority (CZA)

  • Central Zoo Authority is a statutory body whose main objective is to enforce minimum standards and norms for upkeepand health care of animals in India zooshave been laid down under the Recognition of Zoo Rules, 1992.Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Central Zoo Authority was established as a statutory body underthe Ministry of Environment & Forests by the Government of India in the year 1992. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The CZA is the body of the government responsible for oversight of zoos constituted under the section 38A of Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972.
  • The main objective of the authority is to complement the national effort in the conservation of wildlife.
  • Zoos are regulated as per the provisions of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and are guided by the National Zoo Policy, 1992.
  • It also regulates the exchange of animals of endangered category Listed under Schedule-I and II of the Wildlife (Protection) Act among zoos.
  • The Authority also coordinates and implements programmes on capacity building of zoo personnel, planned breeding programmes and ex-situ research including biotechnological intervention for the conservation of species for complementing in-situ conservation efforts in the country.
  • Apart from the chairman, it consists of 10 members and a member-secretary.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ministry-reconstitutes-central-zoo-authority/article31964930.ece

8.Consider the following statements with respect to Accelerate Vigyan (AV)

It aims to initiate and strengthen mechanisms of identifying research potential, mentoring, training and giving hands-on workshops on a national scale

It has launched by the Union government’s Science and Engineering Research Board

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Union govt flags off ‘Accelerate Vigyan’ scheme to push scientific research

  • Providing a thrust to high-end scientific research; a platform for research internships and capacity-building programs; preparing scientific manpower — these are some objectives of ‘Accelerate Vigyan’ (AV) launched by the Union government’s Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB).Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The scheme aims to initiate and strengthen mechanisms of identifying research potential, mentoring, training and giving hands-on workshops on a national scale.Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • The aim is to expand the research base in the country, with three broad goals – consolidation / aggregation of all scientific training programs, initiating High-end Orientation Workshops and creating opportunities for Research Internships.

About ‘ABHYAAS’ programme:

  • It is an attempt to boost research and development in the country by enabling and grooming potential PG/PhD students by means of developing their research skills in selected areas across different disciplines or fields.
  • It has two components: High-End Workshops (‘KARYASHALA’) and Research Internships (‘VRITIKA’).
  • This is especially important for those who have limited opportunities to access such learning capacities / infrastructure.

About Mission ‘SAMOOHAN’ 

  • Mission ‘SAMOOHAN’ marks the beginning of Accelerate Vigyan.
  • It aims to encourage, aggregate and consolidate all scientific interactions in the country under one common roof.
  • It has been sub-divided into ‘SAYONJIKA’ and ‘SANGOSHTI’.
  • SAYONJIKA is an open-ended program to catalogue the capacity building activities in science and technology supported by all government funding agencies in the country.
  • SANGOSHTI is a pre-existing program of SERB

Source:https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/union-govt-flags-off-accelerate-vigyan-scheme-to-push-scientific-research-72059

9.The term Striped Hairstreak and Elusive Prince, sometimes seen in news, is related to

Butterflies species

Dancing flowers

Invasive plant species

ocean grass plants

Answer: (a) Butterflies species

Explanation:

In NEWS:Two more species added to India’s list of butterflies

  • Lepidopterists have discovered the Striped Hairstreak and ElusivePrince in Arunachal Pradesh. Lepidopterists in Arunachal Pradesh have helped add two species to India’s expanding list of butterflies. Hence option (a) is correct
  • One of them, the Striped Hairstreak, was first recorded by Japanese entomologists in Hainan province of China
  • The Elusive Prince (Rohanatonkiniana) was found in Miao on the periphery of the Namdapha National Park. It has a Vietnamese connection and was thought to be the more familiar Black Prince found in the Eastern Himalayas.
  • India now has 1,327 species of butterflies, up from 1,318 in 2015.
  • The recording of the two butterflies follows the “rediscovery” of the Assam Keelback, a non-venomous snake from the Gelling area of Arunachal Pradesh after 129 years.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/japanese-found-chinese-butterfly-is-now-indian/article31963607.ece

10.What is common to the places known as Aliyar, Isapur and Kangsabati?

Recently discovered uranium deposits

Tropical rain forests

Underground cave systems

Water reservoirs

Answer: (d) Water reservoirs

Explanation:

  • Aliyar is a village located near Pollachi Town in Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu, India. The famous Aliyar Reservoir is located in this village.
  • Isapur Dam is an earthfill dam on Pengangariver near Pusad in the state of Maharashtra.
  • The Kangsabati Reservoir Project was started in 1956 as part of the Indian Second Five -year Plan to provide water to 3,484.77 square kilometres (1,345.48 sq mi) of land in the districts of Midnapur(erstwhile), Bankura, and Hooghly. It involves irrigation land using water from the Kangsabati River, as well as the Shilabati and the Bhoirobbanki rivers.Hence option (d) is correct