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Daily Prelims Test – 02_December 2020

Consider the following statements regarding the Gandhara school of Art

  • It is a blend of Indian and Greco-Roman style.
  • It was followed by Mahayana sect of Buddhism.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The first ever SCO Online International Exhibition on Shared Buddhist Heritage commences today

Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu, Vice President of India & Chair of the SCO Council of Heads of Government in 2020, launched the first ever SCO Online Exhibition on Shared Buddhist Heritage, during the 19th Meeting of the SCO Council of Heads of Government (SCO CHG), held today in New Delhi, in videoconference format.
The visitors can explore the Indian Buddhist treasures from the Gandhara and Mathura Schools, Nalanda, Amaravati, Sarnathetc. in a 3D virtual format. ThePakistan hall depicts the life of Gautama Buddha and Buddhist Art through a collection of impressive Gandharaart objects from Karachi, Lahore, Taxlia, Islamabad, SWAT and Peshawar museums. These include fasting Siddhartha and footprint of Buddha from Sikri, meditating Buddha from SahriBahloi, miracle of Sravasti from Gandhara etc.
About Gandhara school of Art

The Gandhara art flourished during the Kushana rule in India. Particularly Kanishka, the greatest of the Kushanas was a great patron of art and architecture. It was during his reign that Gandhara School of art flourished. The new Gandhara style of art that developed in sculpture was a fusion of Greco-Roman and Indian styles.
The Gandhara sculptors made images of Lord Buddha in the Greco-Roman style. The images of Buddha resembled Greek God Apollo. Hence statement 1 is correct
The Gandhara school made sculptures of the Buddha in various sizes, shapes and postures. The reliefs depict Buddha’s birth, his renunciation and his preaching. The salient features of Gandhara art are:

Moulding human body in a realistic manner with minute attention to physical features like muscles, moustache and curtly hair.
Thick drapery with large and bold fold lines.
Rich carving, elaborate ornamentation and symbolic expressions.
The main theme was the new form of Buddhism – Mahayanism– and the evolution of an image of Buddha. Hence statement 2 is correct
About Mathura School of art

Mathura School of art is purely indigenous style. Mathura art developed during post Maurya peiod (mainly during Shunga period) and reached its peak during the Gupta period (AD 325 to 600). The traditional centre, Mathura, remained the main art production site whereas Sarnath and Kosambi also emerged as important centres of art production. Spotted red sandstone was used in this school.
Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1677157#:~:text=Shri%20M.%20Venkaiah%20Naidu%2C%20Vice,New%20Delhi%2C%20in%20videoconference%20format.


Hornbill Festival is celebrated by which of the following state in India?

  • Assam
  • Meghalaya
  • Tripura
  • Nagaland

Answer: (d) Nagaland

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nagaland’s virtual Hornbill Festival to begin on December 1

For the first time, amid the global coronavirus pandemic, Nagaland will be taking its 21st edition of the Hornbill Festival to a virtual platform from December 1 to 5, on three national and regional audio visual news channels. Hence, option (d) is correct
Dubbed as the ‘Festival of Festivals’, the Hornbill Festival, which has put the state on the global tourist map, is a 10-day annual cultural and tourism extravaganza that elaborately showcases the rich and diverse Naga ethnicity through folk dances, traditional music, local cuisine, handicrafts, art, craft workshops highlighting indigenous textiles and designs, among various other Naga experiences.
One of the most well-known festivals of the Northeast, Hornbill is organised every year on December 1 when Nagaland celebrates its Statehood Day.
Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/nagaland-s-virtual-hornbill-festival-to-begin-on-december-1/story-Ic00o5tg4kjQ6F1etlrguJ.html#:~:text=According%20to%20the%20head%20of,December%203%20(3.30%20PM).

3.World Trade Report 2020 is launched by which of the following international organization?
World Bank
World Trade Organization
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
Answer: (b) World Trade Organization

Explanation:

In NEWS: WTO World Trade Report Examines Policies on Digital Innovation

The 2020 edition of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) World Trade Report analyzes the adoption of government policies to foster digital innovation and technological progress for economies, and explains the WTO’s role in this changing context. Hence, option (b) is correct
The publication titled, ‘World Trade Report 2020: Government Policies to Promote Innovation in the Digital Age,’ finds that 115 countries have instituted new industrial policies and other digital and industrial development strategies that aim to foster a transition to the digital economy.
The report highlights a number of new policy instruments that are being used to support this transition. These include policies to address access to data, research and development support, such as tax breaks to facilitate digital innovation, and technological hubs to maximize knowledge spillovers and knowledge diffusion.
The report also showcases ways in which the WTO has supported innovation, including through eliminating tariffs on internet and telecommunications infrastructure products through the Information Technology Agreement (ITA).
Governments are also continuing to employ several conventional policy instruments including:

The investment and tax incentives to develop local technologies
The incentives to foster patent and other intellectual property creation.
The tariffs on infrastructural equipment, and innovation-oriented procurement to shift markets towards innovative products and incentives.
Source: http://sdg.iisd.org/news/wto-world-trade-report-examines-policies-on-digital-innovation/


Consider the following pair

Irrigation sites state in India

  • Cumbum Kambham lake Karnataka
  • Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal Andhra Pradesh
  • Dhamapur Lake Maharashtra

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  • 1 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Four sites in India get World Heritage Irrigation Structure tag

Cumbum Tank, Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal, Porumamilla Tank (Anantharaja Sagaram) in Andhra Pradesh and
490-year-old Dhamapur Lake in Maharashtra’s Sindhudurg district. Hence, option (b) is correct
Four sites in India have received the World Heritage Irrigation Structure (WHIS) tag this year. The sites are Cumbum Tank, Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal, Porumamilla Tank (Anantharaja Sagaram) in Andhra Pradesh and 490-year-old Dhamapur Lake in Maharashtra’s Sindhudurg district.
In 2018, Pedda Cheru Tank in Kamareddy district and Sadarmat Anicut in Nirmal district, both in Telangana, were named as WHIS sites.
About World Heritage Irrigation Structure:

The WHIS sites are annually recognised by International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage.
Aim: To understand the evolution of irrigation in civilizations across the world.
Objective: To learn from their significant achievements and gather knowledge about their unique features that have sustained the project over centuries.
Criteria for recognition:

The structure should be: More than 100 years’ old , Functional, achieving food security and Have archival value
Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/four-sites-in-india-get-world-heritage-irrigation-structure-tag/story-n8P4HNaHuPdQQXT8VKQGyJ.html


Which of the following statements is not correct regarding Purchasing Managers Index (PMI)?

  • PMI aims to provide information about current and future business conditions to company decision-makers, analysts, and investors.
  • PMI is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.
  • PMI is a survey-based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from the month before.
  • PMI is usually released at the start of every day

Answer: d) PMI is usually released at the start of every day

Explanation:

In News: PMI shows manufacturing losing steam

PMI aims to provide information about current and future business conditions to company decision-makers, analysts, and investors.
PMI is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.
PMI is a survey-based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from the month before.
PMI is usually released at the start of every month. Hence option (d) is not correct.
Source:


Which of the following countries comprises the Horn of Africa?

  • Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti
  • Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia
  • Djibouti, South Sudan, Eritrea
  • Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia

Answer: a) Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How Ethiopia’s Tigrya crisis is impacting the horn of africa

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/how-ethiopias-tigray-crisis-is-impacting-the-horn-of-africa-7054436/


Consider the following statements

  • Compulsory licensing is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself.
  • For compulsory licensing, it’s when the generic copy is produced mainly for the domestic market and also for export.
  • The patent owner still has rights over the patent including a right to be paid compensation for copies of the products made under the compulsory license.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3
  • 1 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:

Compulsory licensing is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself. Hence statement 1 is correct.
It is one of the flexibilities in the field of patent protection included in the WTO’s agreement on intellectual property — the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement.
For compulsory licensing, it’s when the generic copy is produced mainly for the domestic market, not for export. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
The patent owner still has rights over the patent, including a right to be paid compensation for copies of the products made under the compulsory licence. Hence statement 3 is correct.
In March 2012, India granted its first compulsory license ever. The license was granted to Indian generic drug manufacturer Natco Pharma for Sorafenib tosylate, a cancer drug patented by Bayer.
Source:https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/public_health_faq_e.htm#:~:text=Compulsory%20licensing%20is%20when%20a,the%20patent%2Dprotected%20invention%20itself.


Recently, ziro valley frequently appeared in news, which is located in?

  • Assam
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Sikkim
  • Jammu and Kashmir

Answer: (b) Arunachal Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: The rise of the wild arunachal kiwi

The kiwis that grow wild in Arunachal Pradesh’s Ziro Valley are the only certified organic fruit of their kind in the country. Hence option (b) is the correct answer
Arunachal is first in the country to obtain Organic Certification for Kiwi under Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD-NER).
Kiwis of Ziro Valley — located in Lower Subansiri district — were certified as organic following a standard three-year-process.
An agricultural practice/product is considered organic when there are no chemical fertilisers or pesticides involved in its cultivation process.
Source https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-rise-of-the-wild-arunachal-kiwi-7074129/


With reference to zebrafish, consider the following statements

  • It is a tiny freshwater fish barely 2-3 cm long that can efficiently regenerate its damaged heart within a short time period.
  • It is found in the tropical and subtropical regions
  • It is native to South Asia’s Indo-Gangetic plains, where they are mostly found in the paddy fields and even in stagnant water and streams.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In News: Zebrafish gene that can promote heart regeneration

It is a tiny freshwater fish barely 2-3 cm long that can efficiently regenerate its damaged heart within a short time period.
It is found in the tropical and subtropical regions
It is native to South Asia’s Indo-Gangetic plains, where they are mostly found in the paddy fields and even in stagnant water and streams.
Scientists at Pune-based Agharkar Research Institute have used the Zebrafish as a research model and identified genes that can promote heart regeneration. Scientists have sought to decode the heart regeneration processes using this animal model. Hence all the above statements are correct.
Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-zebrafish-gene-that-can-promote-heart-regeneration-7074247/


In India, it is legally mandatory for which of the following to report on cyber security incidents?

  • Service providers
  • Data centres
  • Body corporate

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team shall serve as the national agency for performing the following functions in the area of cyber security,– (a) collection, analysis and dissemination of information on cyber incidents; (b) forecast and alerts of cyber security incidents; (c) emergency measures for handling cyber security incidents; (d) coordination of cyber incidents response activities.
Any service provider, intermediaries, data centres, body corporate or person who fails to provide the information called for or comply with the above section shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees or with both. Hence option (d) is correct

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