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Daily Prelims Test – 02_August

1.Consider the following statements regarding Alliance to End Plastic Waste 

1.It is an UN-Habitat programme based in Singapore.

2.It focuses on solutions in four strategic areas of infrastructure, innovation, education & engagement and the clean-up.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Singapore-based NGO to invest up to USD 100m on environmental projects in India

  • Alliance to End Plastic Waste, a Singapore-based-NGO working in the environmental sector, plans to invest between USD 70 million to 100 million in India over the next five years to majorly to reduce plastic waste
  • India currently generates around 26,000 tonnes of plastic waste every day, over 10,000 tonnes of which is not collected
  • The latest project by the Alliance and Deutsche Gesellschaft for Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) is the Aviral, Reducing Plastic Waste in the Ganga.

About Alliance to End Plastic Waste

  • In January 2019, we founded the Alliance to End Plastic Waste as a non profit organisation to help solve this serious and complex issue – 8 million tons of plastic waste entering the ocean every year. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It works with government, environmental and economic development NGOs and communities around the world to address the challenge to end plastic waste in the environment
  • Nearly fifty companies across the plastics value chain have joined the Alliance and together they have committed to invest US$1.5 billion towards solutions that will prevent the leakage as well as recover and create value from plastic waste.
  • The alliance focuses on solutions in four strategic areas: infrastructure, innovation, education & engagement and the clean upHence statement 2 is correct
  • From India, Reliance Industries will advance efforts towards a sustainable future.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/singapore-based-ngo-invest-usd-100m-environmental-projects-india-6532905/

2.What is the aim of Samarth Programme?

It aims to help artisans use the online marketplace to sell their products

It aims to skill the youth for gainful and sustainable employment in the textile sector

It aims to enhance the employability of Indian youth by providing ‗on-job work exposure‘ and stipend

It aims to ensure quality, credibility and timely availability of information from all the schools in the country.

Answer: (a) It aims to help artisans use the online marketplace to sell their products

Explanation:

In NEWS: Walmart-owned Flipkart supports 6 lakh artisans in India through Samarth programme

  • Walmart-owned Flipkart on Friday said it supports over six lakh artisans, weavers and craftsmen across the country through its Samarth programme and is working on onboarding more such sellers to the platform.
  • The Samarth programme was launched last year, wherein the e-commerce major had partnered with five non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to help artisans use the online marketplace to sell their products. Hence option (a) is correct
    Samarth supports the livelihood of over six lakh artisans, weavers and craftsmen through partnerships with NGOs and government entities, and provides the artisans an access to a pan-India customer base of more than 200 million
    The initiative has been launched by Flipkart in 2019.
  • It significantly contributes to the growth of the country and has a huge potential to do more. E-commerce companies can help Indian MSMEs and the handicraft sector adopt a global outlook
  • Flipkart also supports MSMEs through Walmart Vriddhi, a supplier development programme that aims to empower 50,000 MSMEs to ‘Make in India’ for local and global markets. It leverages the supply chains and expertise of the Flipkart businesses and Walmart, and provides tailored training and advice along with access to an ecosystem of peers and mentors.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/services/retail/flipkart-supports-6-lakh-artisans-in-india-through-samarth-programme/articleshow/77287571.cms

3.Consider the following statements regarding Pratihara Style

1.It is a famous temple architecture belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Gujarat

2.They are known for their sculptures, carved panels and open pavilion style temples.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Natesa of Rajasthan temple returns to India

  • A long-pending case of idol theft finally saw an important development as Natesa, a rare sandstone idol in the 9th century Prathihara style of Rajasthan, is returning to the country after 22 years. The Natesa icon, currently at the Indian High Commission, London, was originally from the Ghateswara Temple, Baroli, Rajasthan.
  • The sandstone Natesa figure stands tall at almost 4 ft. in a rare and brilliant depiction of Lord Shiva in the late 9th century Prathihara style of Rajasthan. A beautiful depiction of Nandi is shown behind the right leg of the Natesa icon.

Pratihara Style: 

  • It is a famous temple architecture belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Rajasthan.They ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The Gurjara-Pratiharas were instrumental in containing Arab armies moving east of the Indus River.
  • The architecture is known for their sculptures, carved panels and open pavilion style temples belonging to Nagara Style of temple Architecture. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • They used most common sandstones for idols that have various shades of red, caused by iron oxide (rust).
  • The greatest development of their style of building is at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/natesa-of-rajasthan-temple-returns-to-india/article32225514.ece

4.Consider the following statements regarding International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

1.It is an international human rights treaty adopted by United nations

2.India is ratified the ICCPR but is yet to enact the legislation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Protesting is a fundamental right: UN

  • A panel of independent experts of the United Nations Human Rights Committee published a fresh interpretation of the right of peaceful assembly. They reaffirmed that protesting peacefully, online or in person, is a fundamental human right.
  • According to one of the committee members, it was a fundamental human right for people to gather to celebrate or to air grievances, in public and private spaces, outdoors, indoors and online.
  • Everyone, including children, foreign nationals, women, migrant workers, asylum seekers and refugees, can exercise the right of peaceful assembly.
  • Governments could not prohibit protests by making generalised references to public order or public safety, or an unspecified risk of potential violence.

About International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR):

  • The ICCPR is an international human rights treaty adopted by United nations in 1966. It came into force from March 23, 1976. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
  • The ICCPR is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee which reviews regular reports of States parties on how the rights are being implemented.
  • There are currently 74 signatories and 168 parties to the India ratified the ICCPR in 1968 but is yet to enact the legislation for the same. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/protesting-is-a-fundamental-right-un/article32225267.ece

5.Consider the following statements regarding Gramodyog Vikas Yojana

1.It aims to enhance the production of ‘Agarbatti’ in the country and create sustainable employment for the traditional Artisans

2.It has launched by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government of India launches a programme for the benefit of artisans involved in manufacturing of Agarbatti under the ‘Gramodyog Vikas Yojana’(as a pilot project)

  • Union Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) approved a programme for the benefit of artisans involved in manufacturing of Agarbattiand to develop village industry under ‘Gramodyog Vikas Yojana’ (as a pilot project) on 30th July 2020. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Govt of India placed the ‘Agarbatti’ item from ‘Free trade’ to ‘Restricted’ trade in the import policy.
  • It also enhanced the import duty from 10% to 25% on ‘round bamboo sticks’ used for manufacturing of Agarbatti.
  • Under this Mission, Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), one of the statutory organizations, working under the M/o MSME,will provide  training, and assistartisans working in this area
  • The program will act as a catalyst in reviving the Agarbatti manufacturing in the villages and small towns and will immediately generate  a  minimum of  about  500 additional  jobs.
  • The programme aims to enhance the production of ‘Agarbatti’ in the country and create sustainable employment for the traditional Artisans, by providing them regular employment and increase in their wages. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This will give a boost to the domestic Agarbatti Industry in the country and will reduce imports of Agarbatti.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1642601

6.Consider the following statements regarding Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative

1.It is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan, international non-governmental organization working in the area of human rights.

2.It is headquartered in London, UK

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Commonwealth countries lagging behind on action against modern slavery, says report

  • With Commonwealth countries accounting for about 40% of people living in conditions of modern slavery in the world, the 54 nations were found lacking in actions to eradicate modern slavery by 2030, according to a report released by the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) and an international anti-slavery organisation Walk Free on the occasion of World Day Against Trafficking in Persons.
  • The report assessed the progress made by Commonwealth countries on the promises made in 2018 to end modern slavery by 2030 and achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of ending forced labour, human trafficking and child labour.
  • The report found that one-third of the Commonwealth countries had criminalised forced marriage, while 23 had not criminalised commercial sexual exploitation of children.

About Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI):

  • CHRI is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan, international non-governmental organization working in the area of human r Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was founded in 1987.
  • In advocating for approaches and measures to prevent human rights abuses, CHRI addresses the Commonwealth Secretariat, the United Nations Human Rights Council members, civil society and the media on criminal justice concerns.
  • It is headquartered in New Delhi, India, with offices in London, UK and Accra, Ghana. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • CHRI’s work is split into two core themes: Access to Information and Access to Justice, which includes Prison Reform, Police Reform, and advocacy on media rights and the South Asia Media Defenders Network

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/commonwealth-countries-lagging-behind-on-action-against-modern-slavery-says-report/article32233622.ece

7.Consider the following statements regarding Smart India Hackathon 2020

1.It is being organised jointly by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Persistent Systems and i4c

2.It is a nationwide initiative to provide students with a platform to solve some of the pressing problems we face in our daily lives

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Young India’s innovative solutions will help nation move forward in challenging times: PM Modi

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that Young India is a storehouse of talent and brimming with innovative and creative solutions to the country’s problems, and with a little guidance students would go a long way in taking India forward amid the Covid-19 pandemic and the new global scenario that would emerge once the health crisis is over
  • PM Modi praised the concept of a rainfall prediction model that was put forward by one of the finalists and said that he appreciated the step and encouraged the student saying that the innovation if successful, would be of immense help to the farmers.
  • About Smart India Hackathon 2020
  • The hackathon is a nationwide initiative to provide students with a platform to solve some of the pressing problems we face in our daily lives, and thus inculcate a culture of product innovation and a mindset of problem- Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It proved to be extremely successful in promoting innovation, out-of-the-box thinking in young minds.
  • It is being organised jointly by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Persistent Systems and i4cHence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-young-india-s-innovative-solutions-will-help-india-move-forward-in-challenging-times-pm-modi/story-X8NdyOoPoruLP1i1nUq6rN.html

8.Consider the following statements regarding Dhole

1.It is listed as a critically endangered as per IUCN red list.

2.It is an apex social carnivore in the tropical forests of South and South East Asia

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Three States rank high  in dhole conservation

  • Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh rank high in the conservation of the endangered dhole in India, according to a new study. 
  • Scientists from the Wildlife Conservation SocietyIndia, the University of Florida, the Wildlife Conservation Trust, and the National Centre for Biological Sciences found that these three States were adequately equipped to maintain their high ranks in consolidating forest habitats and recoverdhole populations by increasing prey density and reducing pressure on forests. 

About Dhole

  • Dhole is an apex social carnivore in the tropical forests of South and South East Asia. Dholes hunt in packs and tend to venture into forested landscapes adjoining protected areas. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • During the Pleistocene, the dhole ranged throughout Asia, Europe and North America but became restricted to its historical range 12,000–18,000 years ago.
  • The dhole is a highly social animal, living in large clans without rigid dominance hierarchies and containing multiple breeding females.
  • Its habitat is forest, grassland, shrubland.
  • Dholes are susceptible to rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus and sarcoptic mange among others which are usually contracted from domestic village dogs that act as reservoirs.
  • It is listed as Endangered by the IUCN. Hence statement 1 is incorrect

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/three-states-rank-high-in-the-conservation-of-the-endangered-dhole/article32250471.ece#:~:text=Karnataka%2C%20Maharashtra%20and%20Madhya%20Pradesh%20rank%20high%20in%20the%20conservation,according%20to%20a%20new%20study.

9.Consider the following statements regarding Indian Council for Cultural Relations

1.It was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

2.It is an autonomous organisation which functions under the Ministry of External Affairs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tilak made freedom struggle truly Indian, says Amit Shah 

Union Home Minister Amit Shah on Saturday said freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the one who madethe freedom struggle, started by the Congress, meaningful and truly Indian.

Mr. Shah was addressing the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) online conference on Tilak, marking 100 years since his death on August 1, 1920.

About Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) 

  • ICCR was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, independent India’s first Education Minister. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • ICCR was transferred from Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs to the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) in 1971. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • ICCR’s has its headquarters at New Delhi.
  • Its objectives are to actively participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes pertaining to India’s external cultural relations; to foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries; to promote cultural exchanges with other countries and people, and to develop relations with nations.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tilak-made-freedom-struggle-truly-indian-amit-shah/article32247475.ece

10.Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India ?

1.Oxides of sulphur

2.Oxide of nitrogen

3.Carbon monoxide

4.Carbon dioxide

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • 1, 3 and 4 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 4 only
  • 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In steel furnace, coke reacts with iron ore, releasing iron and generating CO and CO2 gases. Due to use of coal, pollutants such as SOx and NOx are released, thus all are correct options.