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Daily Prelims Test – 01_June

1.Consider the following statements with respect to PM-CARES Fund

  • It has been set up as a public charitable trust and Prime Minister is the chairman of this trust
  • It is not subject to the RTI Act of 2005

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
    1. 2 only
    1. Both 1 and 2
    1. Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:PM CARES is not a public authority under RTI Act: PMO

  •  The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) has refused to disclose details on the creation and operation of the PM CARES Fund, telling a Right to Information applicant that the fund is “not a public authority” under the ambit of the RTI Act, 2005.Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  As PM CARES includes the name, the composition of the trust, control, usage of the emblem, government domain name, it signifies that it is a public authority.
  •  The composition of the trust is also enough to show that Government exercises substantive control over the trust, making it a public authority.

About PM-CARES Fund:

  •  It is a PM-Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund set up to support the government in its fight against the impact of the coronavirus pandemic.
  •  Contributions towards PM CARES Fund will be an eligible expenditure under the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) obligations.
  •  It is a public charitable trust. Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairman of the PM CARES Fund and Minister of Defence, Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Finance, Government of India are ex-officio Trustees of the Fund.Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  PM CARES Fund has also got exemption under the FCRA and a separate account for receiving foreign donations has been opened.
  •  Donations to PM CARES Fund would qualify for 80G benefits for 100% exemption under the Income Tax Act, 1961

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-pm-cares-is-not-a-public-authority-under-rti-act-pmo/article31712146.ece

2.Consider the following statements with respect to National Artificial Intelligence Portal

  • It has been jointly developed by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology and Information Technology (IT) Industry.
  • National e-Governance Divisionand NASSCOM from the IT industry will jointly run this portal.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
    • 2 only
    • Both 1 and 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:India’s first national Artificial Intelligence Portal launched by IT minister Ravi Shankar Prasad

This portal shall work as a one-stop digital platform for AI-related developments in India, sharing of resources such as articles, startups, investment funds in AI, resources, companies and educational institutions related to AI in India.

  •  Artificial Intelligence Portal has been jointly developed by the Ministry of Electronics and IT and IT Industr Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  National e-Governance Division of Ministry of Electronics and IT and NASSCOM from the IT industry will jointly run this portal.Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  The portal will also share documents, case studies, research reports etc. It has a section about learning and new job roles related to AI
  •  India must be a leading country in the development of Artificial Intelligence in the world, leveraging upon its vast Internet-savvy population and data it is creating.
  • India’s AI approach should be of inclusion and empowerment of human being by supplementing growth and development rather than making human beings less relevant

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/india-s-first-national-artificial-intelligence-portal-launched-by-it-minister-ravi-shankar-prasad/story-JZixqxUbTcSXRjl6fEevjP.html

3.Consider the following statements with respect toParticularly vulnerable tribal groups

  • 75 tribal groups have been categorized categorized by Ministry of Home Affairs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
  • A separate category of PVTGs was constituted based on the recommendations of the Dhebar Commission in 1975.
  • The highest numbers of PVTGs are found in West Bengal.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
    • 2 and 3 only
    • 1 and 2 only
    • 1,2 and 3
  • Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:COVID-19 is lethal for the world’s indigenous peoples

  •  Reverse migration, social discrimination and loss of their homes could have serious effects on the livelihood, health and well-being of indigenous peoples
  •  Indigenous peoples in remote areas are extremely vulnerable to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) than other communities. The pandemic may have serious effects on their well-being, livelihood and health.
  •  In India’s tribal areas, basic healthcare facilities are extremely poor. Besides, a lack of key information and awareness to effectively deal with outbreaks further add fuel to the fire. Against this backdrop, the COVID-19 pandemic in tribal areas poses a serious threat to the tribal population.

About PVTG’s:

  •  75 tribal groups have been categorizedcategorized by Ministry of Home Affairs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)s. PVTGs reside in 18 States and UT of A&N Islands. The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.
  •  In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).
  •  A separate category of PVTGs was constituted based on the recommendations of the Dhebar Commission in 1975. Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  •  Under the scheme, Conservation-cum-Development (CCD)/Annual Plans are to be prepared by each State/UT for their PVTGs based on their need assessment, which are then appraised and approved by the Project Appraisal Committee of the Ministry.
  •  Priority is also assigned to PVTGs under the schemes of Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Tribal Sub-Scheme (TSS), Grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution, Grants-in-aid to Voluntary Organisations working for the welfare of Schedule Tribes and Strengthening of Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts.
  • Criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:
  •  A pre-agriculture level of technology.
  •  A stagnant or declining population.
  •  Extremely low literacy.
  •  A subsistence level of economy.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/environment/covid-19-is-lethal-for-the-world-s-indigenous-peoples-71458

4.MaguriMotapungBeel is located in which of the following state in India?

  • Assam
  • Tripura
  • Meghalaya
  • Kerala

Answer: (a) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS:Blowout at Oil India well threatens national park in upper Assam

At least 2,000 people have been evacuated as state-owned Oil India Ltd (OIL) struggles to control a massive eruption or blowout from one of its producing wells in Baghjan oilfield in Upper Assam’s Tinsukia district.

The leak has contaminated water bodies that flow into the MaguriMotapungBeel, a large wetland, and the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park (DSNP) — both of which lie in the immediate vicinity.

About MaguriMotapungBeel:

  •  MaguriBeel is a large wetland located 3.8 Km away from GuijanGhat , Assam, gateway of the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park and Biosphere Reserve. A small channel connects MaguriBeel with the Dibru River to the North.Hence option (a) is correct
  •  It has grown importance because it is home to some of the rarest of the bird species and attracts varied species of birds from around the globe for which it has already been declared as an Important Birding Site (IBA) by BirdLife International.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/pollution/blowout-at-oil-india-well-threatens-national-park-in-upper-assam-71464

5.Consider the following statements with respect to COVID-19 India National Supermodel

  • It is an initiative of the Department of Science and Technology
  • It aims to help monitor the future transmission of infection, thus aiding decisions involving health system readiness and other mitigation measures

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
    • 2 only
    • Both 1 and 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indian National Supermodel to predict the future of coronavirus spread

  •  The Indian government’s department of science and technology (DST) has begun work on the creation of a Covid -19 Indian National Supermodel which will forecast the coronavirus spread and also monitor the future transmission of infection with the aim to assist governments in decisions involving readiness of the national health systems and other mitigation measures.Hence statements1 and 2 are correct
  •  It will entirely rely only on the data that is relevant to COVID-19, and also have an adaptive built-in component to learn from the newer trends in the data.
  •  It will aggregate successful evidence-based mathematical and statistical forecasting models and include the best predictive analytics for robust forecasting of infectious disease spread.
  •  The supermodel could be used by the policymakers in India and around the world to overcome difficulties in predicting the rate of spread of infection and how it would burden the healthcare sector, thereby curbing the epidemic.
  •  Under this initiative, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) and IISc, Bangalore will co-ordinate to connect and work with all COVID-19 modeling projects and programs in the country.
  •  The role of JNCASR and IISc Bangalore will help develop a set of benchmarks to assess various models and to finally deliver the COVID-19 India National Supermodel.
  •  A consultative committee will work closely with DST and SERB and coordinators (JNCASR and IISc Bangalore) and modellers of this initiative to provide critical inputs on technical aggregation, guidance, and final delivery of a robust Supermodel.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/coming-soon-indian-national-supermodel-to-predict-the-future-of-coronavirus-spread/story-3zF3pa6uhidneYhVJrZrgJ.html

6.Consider the following statements

  • The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory and India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long
  • India formally accepted the concept of the LAC when Narasimha Rao paid a return visit to Beijing in 1993 and the two sides signed the Agreement to Maintain Peace and Tranquillity at the LAC

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
    • 2 only
    • Both 1 and 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:A phantom called the Line of Actual Control

  •  At the heart of India’s and China’s continued inability to make meaningful progress on the boundary issue are four agreements — signed in September 1993, November 1996, April 2005 and October 2013 — between the two countries.
  •  According to the 1993 agreement (on the maintenance of peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the India-China border areas), “pending an ultimate solution”, “the two sides shall strictly respect and observe the LAC between the two sides .No activities of either side shall overstep the LAC”.
  •  Further, both the 1993 and the 1996 agreement (on confidence-building measures in the military field along the LAC) say they “will reduce or limit their respective military forces within mutually agreed geographical zones along the LAC
  •  Astonishingly, nowhere in the 1993 agreement is there the provision to recognise the existing lines of deployment of the respective armies, as they were in 1993. The agreement does not reflect any attempt to have each side recognise the other’s line of deployment of troops at the time it was signed.

About Line of Actual Control (LAC)

  •  The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory. India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long, while the Chinese consider it to be only around 2,000 km. Hence statement 1is correct
  •  It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the western sector in Ladakh.
  •  India formally accepted the concept of the LAC when Rao paid a return visit to Beijing in 1993 and the two sides signed the Agreement to Maintain Peace and Tranquillity at the LAC.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The ambiguity over the LAC has brought a prolonged sense of unease and uncertainty and thus exponentially contributed to the military build-up in those areas.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-phantom-called-the-line-of-actual-control/article31717488.ece

7.Consider the following statements with respect toUniversal Basic Income

  • Universal Basic Income is a programme for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area/state with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status.
  • UBI has a three components of universality (all citizens included), unconditionality (no prior condition), and agency (by providing support in the form of cash transfers to respect, not dictate, recipients’ choices).

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
    • 2 only
    • Both 1 and 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:It’s time for a universal basic income programme in India

  •  The ongoing crisis is creating changes that could end up dividing society into pre- and post-COVID-19 days. These changes are also likely to exacerbate the novel challenges accompanying the fourth industrial revolution.
  •  Many consider a universal basic income (UBI) programme to be a solution that could mitigate the looming crisis caused by dwindling job opportunities. UBI is also deliberated as an effective poverty-eradication tool.
  •  UBI in its true sense would entail the provision of an unconditional fixed amount to every citizen in a country.
  •  Nevertheless, countries across the world, including Kenya, Brazil, Finland, and Switzerland, have bought into this concept and have begun controlled UBI pilots to supplement their population.

About Universal Basic Income :

  •  A basic income is a regular, periodic cash payment delivered unconditionally to all citizens on an individual basis, without the requirement of work or willingness to work.
  •  UBI has three components: universality (all citizens included), unconditionality (no prior condition), and agency (by providing support in the form of cash transfers to respect, not dictate, recipients’ choices).Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  Universal Basic Income (UBI) is a programme for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area/state with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status.Hence statement 1is correct
  •  The main idea behind UBI is to prevent or reduce poverty and increase equality among citizens. The essential principle behind Universal basic income is the idea that all citizens are entitled to a livable income, irrespective of the circumstances they’re born in.
  •  The idea of a universal basic income has gained currency in the West because of the threat of automation-induced job losses.
  •  In India, the idea first gained currency as a solution to chronic poverty and government’s failure to effectively target subsidies towards the poor
  • The broad features of such schemes are:
  •  Payments at periodic regular intervals (not one-off grants),
  •  Payments in cash (not food vouchers or service coupons),
  •  Payments to individuals,
  •  Universality

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/its-time-for-a-universal-basic-income-programme-in-india/article31717471.ece

8.Consider the following statements with respect to International Space Station (ISS)

  • It is a joint project of NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA
  • ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
    • 2 only
    • Both 1 and 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:SpaceX Crew Dragon docks with International Space Station

NASA astronauts entered the International Space Station on Sunday after a landmark 19-hour journey on the first crewed US spacecraft in nearly a decade

It’s the first time a crewed U.S. spacecraft has performed the feat in nearly a decade. It was also a first for the private sector, a triumphant moment for SpaceX founded by Elon Musk in 2002.

About International Space Station (ISS):

  •  The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
  •  The ISS is the largest artificial body in orbit.
  •  The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components.
  •  ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets as well as American Space Shuttles.
  •  NASA, Russia’s Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Roscosmos), the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency are the primary space agency partners on the project.Hence statement 1is correct
  •  The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields.Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  The ISS is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars.
  •  ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US.
  •  It circles the Earth in roughly 92 minutes and completes 15.5 orbits per day.
  •  It is expected to operate until 2030.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/spacex-crew-dragon-docks-with-international-space-station/article31717211.ece

9.Consider the following statements with respect to Bandtail scorpionfish

  • It is a rare marine species well-known for the stinging venomous spines and the ability to change colour
  • Recently, it is found in sethukarai coast in the Gulf of Mannar

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
    • 2 only
    • Both 1 and 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Rare scorpionfish found in Gulf of Mannar

  •  Researchers at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) have found a rare fish from Sethukarai coast in the Gulf of Mannar.Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  Camouflaged within the seagrass meadows, the band-tail scorpionfish (Scorpaenospsisneglecta), well-known for its stinging venomous spines and ability to change colour, was found during an exploratory survey of the seagrass ecosystem.Hence statement 1is correct
  •  This was the first time that the particular species was found alive in Indian waters
  •  The fish has the ability to change colour and blend with its surrounding environment to escape from predators and while preying.
  •  Unlike other fish, band-tail scorpionfish uses its lateral sensory system instead of eyes to hunt its prey.This was the first time this particular species was found live in the Indian waters
  •  According to UNESCO, the Gulf of Mannar’s 4,223 species of plants and animals representing from primitive to higher forms make it one of the richest coastal regions in India.
  •  Sethukarai is a famous pilgrimage centre in Tamil Nadu, connected to Indian mythology. It is believed that Lord Ram constructed a bridge over the sea from Sethukarai to Sri Lanka

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/rare-scorpionfish-found-in-gulf-of-mannar/article31717527.ece

10.He wrote biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi, Shivaji and Shrikrishna; stayed in America for some time; and was also elected to the Central Assembly. He was

  • Aurobindo Ghosh
  • Bipin Chandra Pal
  • Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Motilal Nehru

Answer: (c) Lala Lajpat Rai

Explanation:

  •  Lala Lajpat Rai was gifted with a perceptive mind, he was a prolific writer and authored several works like – “Unhappy India”, “Young India: An Interpretation”, “History of Arya Samaj”, “England’s Debt to India” and a series of popular biographies His biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi and. Shivaji were published in 1896 and those of Dayanand and. Shri Krishna in 1898. Hence option (c) is correct