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Daily Prelims Test – 01_July 2021

With respect to Black Hole, consider the following statements:

  • It is a region in space where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that neither matter nor light can escape.
  • It is visible and detected by the advanced space telescopes.
  • All the blackholes are having mass greater than that of our sun.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Discovery of a new source of gravitational waves: Collisions between Neutron Star and Black Hole

  • There is huge excitement among scientists with the first confirmed detection of a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) collision being reported. This ground breaking discovery of gravitational waves from a pair of NS-BH mergers was published in the Astrophysical Journal
  • As the two compact and massive bodies orbit around each other, they come closer, and finally merge, due to the energy lost in the form of gravitational waves.
  • The Gravitational Waves signals are buried deep inside a lot of background noise.
  • The technique used here to detect the signal is called matched filtering. This was also used for the first discovery of gravitational waves.

About Blackhole

  • A blackholeis a region in space where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that neither matter nor light can escape. This phenomenon occurs when a star is dyingHence statement (1) is correct.
  • For anything approaching a black hole, the point of no return is called the “event horizon” and anything that comes within the event horizon will be consumed forever.
  • Since no light can escape from it, a black hole is invisible.
  • However, advanced space telescopes can identify black holes by observing the behaviour of material and stars that are very close to black holes. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • This hot disk of material encircling a black hole shines bright and against this disk, a black hole appears to cast a shadow.
  • This is how the photograph of the black hole was achieved.
  • In 2019, NASA released the first-ever photograph of a black hole and its shadow, which was captured by an international network of radio telescopes called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT).

Usually, the black holes belong to two categories:

  • One category ranges between a few solar masses and tens of solar masses. These are thought to form when massive stars die. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • The other category is of supermassive black holes. These range from hundreds of thousands to billions of times that of the sun from the Solar system to which Earth belongs.

Blackhole and Neutron Star:

  • A neutron star has a surface and a Blackhole does not.
  • A neutron star is about 1.4-2 times the mass of the sun while the other black hole is much more massive.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/ligo-finds-a-new-source-of-gravitational-waves-collisions-between-neutron-stars-black-holes-7381428/

Consider the following statements regarding the Parliamentary Sessions:

  1. The summoning of Parliament is specified in Article 85 of the Constitution.
    1. The decision to convene a session of Parliament is taken by the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs which is formalized by the President.
    1. The constitution provides that the gap between two sessions of the Parliament cannot exceed 6 months.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ahead of monsoon session, 3/4th members of Rajya Sabha fully vaccinated

  • Meanwhile, at least 403 members of the Lok Sabha, nearly three-fourths of its current strength of 540, have also received both doses of the Covid-19 vaccine so far, raising hopes that next month’s session will not need to be curtailed

Parliamentary Sessions

  • A session of the Indian Parliament is the period during which a House meets almost every day uninterruptedly to manage the business. There are typically three sessions in one year.
  • Summoning is the process of calling all members of the Parliament to meet.
  • The President summons each House of the Parliament from time to time.
  • The gap between two sessions of the Parliament cannot exceed 6 months, which means the Parliament meets at least two times in one year.
  • The summoning of Parliament is specified in Article 85 of the Constitution. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The power to convene a session of Parliament rests with the Government. The decision is taken by the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs which is formalised by the President, in whose name MPs are summoned to meet for a session. Hence statements (2) and (3) are correct.
  • India does not have a fixed parliamentary calendar. 
  • They are the Budget Session (February to May); the Monsoon Session (July to September); and the Winter Session (November to December). 
  • A session consists of many meetings. Each meeting has two sittings – morning sitting from 11 am to 1 pm and post-lunch sitting from 2 pm to 6 pm.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/ahead-of-monsoon-session-3-4th-members-of-rajya-sabha-fully-vaccinated-101624943957371.html

Consider the following statements regarding NATRAX:

  1. It is one of the state-of-the-art automotive testing and certification centres under National Automotive Testing and Research and development (R&D) Infrastructure Project.
    1. It is one stop solution for all sorts of high speed performance tests.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India gets Asia’s longest and world’s fifth longest High Speed Track for automobiles.

  • The Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises inaugurated NATRAX- the High Speed Track in Pithampur, Indore (Madhya Pradesh).

About NATRAX

  • NATRAX IS ONE OF THE STATE OF The Art Testing And Certification Center
  • Under NATRIP, a flagship project of the Ministry of Heavy Industries, Govt of India planned under the Automotive Mission Plan launched by the Government of India.
  • It aims to create a state of the art testing, validation and R&D infrastructure in the country. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is a world class 11.3 km High Speed Track. The track is the longest in Asia and the fifth-largest in the world.
  • It is developed in an area of 1000 acres of land.
  • It is located only 50 km away from Indore, the financial capital of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Being centrally located, it is accessible to most of the major Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs).
  • High Speed Track is used for measuring the maximum speed capability of high-end cars like BMW, Mercedes etc which cannot be measured on any of the Indian test tracks.
  • Foreign OEMs will be looking at NATRAX High Speed Track for the development of prototype cars for Indian conditions.
  • It is one stop solution for all sorts of high speed performance tests, being one of the largest in the world. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It can cater to the widest category of vehicles; say from two wheelers to the heaviest tractor trailers.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1731122

Consider the following statements regarding PM Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises Scheme:

  1. It aims to enhance the competitiveness of existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganized segment of the food processing industry.
    1. It is a centrally sponsored scheme.
    1. It aims to promote formalization of the sector and provide support to Farmer Producer Organizations, Self Help Groups, and Producers Cooperatives along their entire value chain.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pradhan Mantri formalisation of micro food processing enterprises scheme completes one year

  • The centrally sponsored Pradhan Mantri Formalization of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme, launched under the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan marks the completion of its one year.

PMFME Scheme

  • The PMFME Scheme is a centrally sponsored scheme that aims to enhance the competitiveness of existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganized segment of the food processing industry. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It aims to enhance the competitiveness of existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganized segment of the food processing industry and promote formalization of the sector. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It further aims to promote formalization of the sector and provide support to Farmer Producer Organizations, Self Help Groups, and Producers Cooperatives along their entire value chain. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • The scheme envisions to directly assist the 2,00,000 micro food processing units for providing financial, technical, and business support for upgradation of existing micro food processing enterprises.

Source: https://www.aninews.in/news/national/general-news/pradhan-mantri-formalisation-of-micro-food-processing-enterprises-scheme-completes-one-year20210630044726/

Consider the following statements regarding National Hydrology Project:

  1. It is a Central Sector scheme and was launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
    1. It aims to improve the extent and accessibility of water resources information and strengthen institutional capacity to enable improved water resources planning and management across India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • The present glacial lake atlas is based on the inventoried glacial lakes in part of Ganga River basin from its origin to foothills of Himalayas covering a catchment area of 2,47,109 sq. km.
  • Glacial Lake Atlas To Be Used In Carrying Out Climate Change Impact Analysis And Disaster Mitigation Planning
  • ‘NHP –Bhuvan portal’ of National Remote Sensing Centre Also Launched

About National Hydrology Project

  • National Hydrology Project (NHP)is a Central Sector scheme. It was launched by the Department of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti with the financial aid of the World Bank. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Objective: To improve the extent and accessibility of water resources information and strengthen institutional capacity to enable improved water resources planning and management across India. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Components: The project comprises four broad components:
  • Improving In Situ Monitoring System (IMS)
  • Improving Spatial Information System (SIS)
  • Promoting Water Resources Operation and Management Applications(WROMA)
  • Strengthening Water Resources Institutions and Capacity Building.
  • Implementing Agency: National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC)

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1731154

Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary is located at which of the following Indian state?

a) Assam

b) West Bengal

c) Gujarat

d) Nagaland

Answer: (a) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: Optimism over tiger sighting in Barnadi sanctuary

  • One of Assam’s smallest wildlife sanctuaries could be the newest home of the tiger in the State. Hence option(a) is correct.
  • Wildlife specialists have the first photographic evidence of a tiger inhabiting the 26.22 sq. km Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary straddling northern Assam’s Baksa and Udalguri districts and bordering Bhutan. The tiger was captured in camera traps during an exercise for more than a month
  • The 1,057sq. km Royal Manas and the 334.73sq. km Jomotshangkha are in Bhutan and part of the Greater Manas landscape. Barnadi was once connected to Assam’s Manas National Park about 80 km to its west, but the area in between has been fragmented due to human habitation.
  • To the east of Barnadi, along the India-Bhutan border are the Khalingduar Reserve Forests and the 220 sq. km Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary where the captive-bred pygmy hog, the smallest and rarest species of wild pigs, was first rehabilitated.
  • Barnadi may not be a permanent habitat of the tiger, which could have come from Bhutan. Even then, the photographic evidence of a flagship species indicates better conservation efforts, particularly with the number of tigers in Manas National Park increasing threefold to 30 in 10 years
  • Barnadi was once connected to Assam’s Manas National Park about 80 km to its west, but the area in between has been fragmented due to human habitation.
  • This sanctuary is named after the river Bornadi, which flows on its western border.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/optimism-over-tiger-sighting-in-barnadi-sanctuary/article35018884.ece

Consider the following statements regarding FIRE initiative:

  1. It aims to bring together industry and academia on a common platform to exchange ground-breaking ideas and co-promote innovative research.
    1. It is launched by the Science and Engineering Research Board.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: SERB-DST partners with Intel India to launch first-of-its-kind initiative to advance deep tech-based research in India

  • Research initiative called ‘Fund for Industrial Research Engagement (FIRE)’ launched by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), a statutory body of Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, in collaboration with Intel India on June 29, 2021. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It will increase research opportunities in the space of Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML), platform systems, circuits & architecture, Internet of Things (IoT), materials & devices, security, and so on from edge to cloud.
  • It will help to promote research in the upcoming critical areas of science and engineering with Public-Private Partnerships as elaborated in the draft Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2021.

About SERB-FIRE initiative:

  • It aims to bring together industry and academia on a common platform to exchange ground-breaking ideas and co-promote innovative research.
  • This collaboration will open many new doors for exploration in scientific research, which could make India a key player in technology-based solutions.
  • SERB-FIRE promises to bring support for strong ideations, especially in futuristic S&T thematic areas, and aims to bring expertise in academia and industry together with a new model of cooperation. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • SERB-Intel collaboration will be an excellent opportunity for the scientists to join hands with Intel and together create a stimulating atmosphere for research in science and engineering.
  • The FIRE program is a joint government and industry initiative with a co-funding mechanism to promote innovative technology solutions and strengthen academic research through collaboration with key research and development (R&D) organizations in India.
  • The program intends to select highly impactful research projects in every cycle (typically once or twice a year),which have breakthrough potential at a national or global level.
  • It will support the best researchers in academia with funding, mentoring, and industry connect.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1731187

The Global Cybersecurity Index is published by which of the following international organisation?

a) International Telecommunication Union

b) International Civil Aviation Organization

c) World Intellectual Property Organization

d) United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Answer: (a) International Telecommunication Union

Explanation:

In NEWS: India jumps to 10th place in cybersecurity index

  • India entered the top 10 of a global cybersecurity ranking of countries, ahead of China at No.33, and Pakistan at No.79. India improved its ranking from 47 to 10 in the United Nations ITU Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA). The US is ranked first, followed by the UK.
  • The GCI is a composite index produced, analysed and published by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialised agency of the UN, to measure the commitment of its 194 member states to cybersecurity in order to raise cybersecurity awareness. Hence option(a) is correct.
  • GCI measures the commitment of countries to cybersecurity at a global level – to raise awareness of the importance and different dimensions of the issue.
  • As cybersecurity has a broad field of application, cutting across many industries and various sectors, each country’s level of development or engagement is assessed along five pillars – (i) Legal Measures, (ii) Technical Measures, (iii) Organisational Measures, (iv) Capacity Development, and (v) Cooperation – and then aggregated into an overall score

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-jumps-to-10th-place-in-cybersecurity-index-101625013721621.html

Consider the following statements regarding Atma Nirbhar Krishi app:

  1. It was created to equip farmers with actionable agricultural insights and early weather alerts.
    1. was launched by the Office of Principal Scientific Adviser.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government Launches “Atmanirbhar Krishi App” For Farmers

  • The Government of India on Tuesday launched ”Atmanirbhar Krishi App” to provide farmers with actionable agricultural insights and early weather alerts.
  • “The Atmanirbhar Krishi app was created to equip farmers with actionable agricultural insights and early weather alerts. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Data related to soil type, soil health, moisture, weather, and water table were aggregated and analysed to generate personalized insights related to crop selection, fertilizers requirements, and water needs for each farmer at the farm-holding level,” Office of Principal Scientific Advisor to GoI said
  • Atmanirbhar Krishi app was launched by the Office of Principal Scientific Adviser, Government of India. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The data has been made comprehensible for farmers by simplifying the language. The app is available in 12 languages.
  • The Android and Windows versions of the app are available on Google Play Store and are free of cost for farmers, start-ups, KVKs, SHGs, or NGOs to use.
  • Considering the connectivity issues in the remote areas of the country, the app has been designed to work on minimal bandwidth.
  • The app does not collect any inputs from the farmer. It relies on the geo-location of the farm to provide relevant data.
  • Data relevant to another location can be collected by entering the PINCODE of that area.
  • Farmers can share this information to others through this app.

Source: PIB

Which of the following is/are the indicator/ indicators used by IFPRI to compute the Global Hunger Index Report?

  1. Undernourishment
    1. Child stunting
    1. Child mortality

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) 1 and 3 only

Answer: (c) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger.

To reflect the multidimensional nature of hunger, the GHI combines the following four component indicators into one index:

  • Undernourishment
  • Child stunting
  • Child mortality
  • Child wasting. Hence option(c) is correct.