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Daily Prelims Test – 01_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regardingEkamraKshetra

It is a series of ancient templesof Haridwar

It has the unique cultural heritage of having Buddhist sites, Jain sites and Hindu temples.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union minister seeks excavation of site where temple ruins were found in Odisha

  • Days after the Archaeological Survey of India stumbled upon the remnants of a 10th century temple near the 11th century Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar, Union minister for petroleum and natural gas and steel Dharmendra Pradhan urged Union culture and tourism minister Prahlad Singh Patel for his intervention for a detailed study and thorough scientific excavation of the heritage area of the state capital.
  • Earlier this week, a team of ASI’s Bhubaneswar circle had found remnants of a 10th century temple of the Somavamshi dynasty near Bhubaneswar’s Suka-Sari temple, a 13th century monument under protection of the central body that was completely excavated 4-5 years ago.
  • The ASI discovered two other structures, believed to be the remains of small shrines, and a portion of the Sari temple. These findings have led ASI experts to believe that the Sari temple complex was built on the Panchayatana model where the main temple is surrounded by four subsidiary shrines.
  • The minister said as the Suka-Sari temple complex and Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar are protected by ASI under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (AMASR) Act, there is an urgent need to act quickly in order to salvage and preserve what remains of this priceless ancient Odishan architecture

About EkamraKshetra

  • The EkamraKshetrahas the unique cultural heritage of having Buddhist sites at Dhauli, Jain sites at Khandagiri-Udayagiri and Hindu temples in and around the Old Bhubaneswar area.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • EkamraKshetracomprises the area of the old city of Bhubaneswar that forms the centre of this temple architecture and is considered a Hindu holy city.
  • As per EkamraPurana, a 13th-century Sanskrit treatise, it is believed that this sacred kshetra was a Panchakrosa (10 miles) in circumference bordered by Khandagiri hills in the west, Kundalesvara temple in the east, Balhadevi Temple on the north and Bahirangesvara temple near Dhauli on the south, with Lingaraj Temple as its centre.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news


Consider the following Statements regardingSocial Stock Exchange

  • It aims to help social and voluntary organizations which work for social causes to raise capital as equity or debt or a unit of mutual fund.
  • It will be under the regulatory ambit of the Securities and Exchange Board of India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Economic Survey 2021 backs setting up of social stock exchange in India

  • The Economic Survey released by the Union Ministry of Finance on January 29, 2021 highlighted the concept of setting up a social stock exchange (SSE) in India for raising capital by orgnanisations working for the realisation of a social welfare objective. It will be under the regulatory ambit of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • SEBI constituted a working group (WG) on social stock exchanges in September 2019. The WG submitted the report on June 1, 2020. It outlined its vision and made recommendations, which include participation of non-profit organisations (NPO) and for-profit enterprises (FPE) on SSE subject to committing to minimum reporting requirements
  • In terms of the recommendations of the WG, there is a need to develop a framework for on-boarding NPOs and FPEs on the SSE-prescribed disclosure requirements relating to financials, governance, performance and dwell upon aspects related to social impact, social audit and information repositories etc
  • The survey added that as of December 24, 2020, eight Environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) mutual funds have been launched in India.

About Social Stock Exchange (SSE)

  • The idea of the Social Stock Exchange (SSE) as a platform for listing social enterprise, voluntary and welfare organisations so that they can raise capital was mooted in the Union Budget 2019-20.
  • Social enterprise can be defined as a non-loss; non-dividend paying company created and designed to address a social problem.
  • It works under the market regulator SEBI.
  • The aim of the initiative is to help social and voluntary organisations which work for social causes to raise capital as equity or debt or a unit of mutual fund.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It provides new and cheaper sources of financing for social welfare projects, while showcasing India’s independence from foreign aid .
  • SSE already exists in countries such as Singapore, UK, Canada among others.These countries allow firms operating in sectors such as health, environment and transportation to raise risk capital.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/economy/economic-survey-2021-backs-setting-up-of-social-stock-exchange-in-india-75276


Consider the following Statements regarding Green India Mission

It is one of the eight Missions outlined under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).

It is aimed at protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Only 2.8% plantation target achieved under Green India Mission: Economic Survey

  • The central government’s afforestation scheme, Green India Mission (GIM), was able to only achieve 2.8 per cent of its plantation target, according to the Economic Survey
  • The target of the 10-year scheme flagged off in 2015 is to increase forest/tree cover on 5 million hectares (m ha) of forest/non-forest land and improve the quality of forest cover on another 5 m ha area.
  • However, as of March 2020, plantation under the scheme was undertaken only over 0.14 m ha land.

What is Green India Mission?

  • GIM is one of the eight missions launched under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).Hence statement 1 is correct
  • GIM, launched in February 2014, is aimed at protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The mission has the broad objective of both increasing the forest and tree cover by 5 million ha, as well as increasing the quality of the existing forest and tree cover in another 5 million ha of forest/ non forest lands in 10 years.
  • The Mission proposes a holistic view of greening and focuses not on carbon sequestration targets alone, but also, on multiple ecosystem services, especially, biodiversity, water, biomass etc., along with provisioning services like fuel, fodder, timber and non-timber forest produces.
  • It will also increase options of forest based livelihood of households living in the fringe of those landscapes where the Mission is implemented.

Objectives of Green India Mission (GIM)

  • Growth in forest or tree cover to 5 million hectares (mha) and increase the quality of forest cover in another 5 million hectares of forest or non-forest lands. There are separate sub-targets for a variety of forests and its ecosystems namely, grassland, dense forest, wetland etc.
  • Increase the quality of degrading moderately dense forests – 1.5 million hectares (ha).
  • Ecologically restore open forests which are being degraded – 3 million hectares (ha)
  • Grasslands revival – 0.4 million hectares
  • Wetlands revival – 0.10 million hectares
  • Ecological restoration of shifting cultivation areas, mangroves, scrub, ravines, cold deserts, & abandoned mining areas – 1.8 million hectares with different sub-targets.
  • Increase in forest cover in urban areas and its outskirts – 0.20 million hectares.
  • Increase in forest and tree cover on marginal agricultural lands/fallows and other non-forest lands which comes under agroforestry – 3 million hectares.
  • Increase forest-based livelihood income for about 3 million households in and around these forest areas.
  • Increase Carbon Dioxide sequestration to a range of 50 to 60 million tonnes by 2020.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/only-2-8-plantation-target-achieved-under-green-india-mission-economic-survey-75267

 


Consider the following Statements regarding Larsen Ice Shelf

  • It is a long, fringing ice shelf in the Arctic Ocean
  • It is a series of three shelvesthat occupy distinct embayment along the coast.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b)2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Antarctic iceberg, once Earth’s biggest, suffers major split

  • A major crack appeared in the Antarctic ice giant, A68a, once the world’s biggest iceberg, as captured in satellite images since January 25, 2021.
  • The iceberg had detached from the Larcen C ice shelf in 2017 and was travelling up towards the island of South Georgia in the British Overseas Territory, when turbulent sea currents diverted it towards to the South Atlantic Ocean.
  • The recent satellite footage captured a smaller slab, now called A68g, distinctly separated from the original iceberg but floating along it about 135 km off the south-eastern coast of South Georgia.
  • A68g is not the first one to depart from the floating ice giant. In fact, as the suffix ‘g’ suggests, it is the sixth smaller chunk or ‘childberg’ to have calved from A68a since the last part of 2020.
  • It still posed a threat to the little island of about the same size and home to penguins, seals and endangered blue whales.  

About Larsen Ice Shelf

  • The Larsen Ice Shelf is a long, fringing ice shelf in the northwest part of the Weddell Sea, extending along the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula from Cape Longing to the area just southward of Hearst Island.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is named for Captain Carl Anton Larsen, the master of the Norwegian whaling vessel Jason, who sailed along the ice front as far as 68°10′ South during December 1893.
  • In finer detail, the Larsen Ice Shelf is a series of three shelves that occupy (or occupied) distinct embayments along the coast. From north to south, the three segments are called Larsen A (the smallest), Larsen B, and Larsen C (the largest) by researchers who work in the area. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/antarctic-iceberg-once-earth-s-biggest-suffers-major-split-75258


Consider the following Statements regardingVembanad Lake

  • It is the second largest Ramsar site in India only after the Sunderbans in West Bengal.
  • The Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary is located in the lake.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c)Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Modi praises solo effort at lake clean­up

  • The untiring efforts of a 69­ year ­old man, paralysed below his knees, towards cleaning up Vembanad Lake, have earned recognition from the highest office of the country.

About Vembanad

  • Vembanadis the longest lake in India and the largest lake in the state of Kerala.
  • With an area of 2033 square kilometers, it is the second largest Ramsar site in India only after the Sunderbans in West Bengal. Spanning several districts in the state of Kerala, it is known as Vembanadu Lake in Kottayam, Punnamada Lake in Alappuzha and Kochi Lake in Kochi.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Vallam Kali (a.k.a Nehru Trophy Boat Race) is a Snake Boat Race held every year in the month of August in Vembanad Lake.
  • In 2002 it was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention.
  • It is separated from the Arabian Sea by a narrow barrier island and is a popular backwater stretch in Kerala.
  • The Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary is located on the east coast of the lake.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/last-five-years-of-kerala-wasted-says-chandy/article33711114.ece


In which of the following state is Periyar Tiger Reserve located?

Tamilnadu

Kerala

Karnataka

Andhra Pradesh

Answer: (b)Kerala

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tiger cub gets hunting lessons from humans

  • For the first time in the country, the Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) in Kerala has taken up the training of a tiger cub to equip it to naturally hunt in the forest environment.

About Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) 

  • Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (PNP) is a protected area near Thekkady in the districts of Idukki, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta in Kerala. Hence option (b) is correct
  • It is notable as an elephant reserve and a tiger reserve.
  • The park is a repository of rare, endemic and endangered flora and fauna and forms the major watershed of two important rivers of Kerala, the Periyar and the Pamba.
  • The park is often called the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary or Thekkady. It is located high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats along the border with Tamil Nadu.
  • The first official action towards the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity in Kerala was taken in 1934 by the Maharaja of Travancore, ChithiraThirunal Balarama Varma, by declaring the forests around Periyar lake as a private game reserve to stop the encroachment of tea plantations

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/tiger-cub-gets-hunting-lessons-from-humans/article33713772.ece


Consider the following Statements

  • The term ‘budget’ is introduced in Article 112 of Constitution of India.
  • Department of Economic Affairs in the Finance Ministry is the nodal body responsible for preparing the Budget.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

  • The Union Budget is also known as the Annual Financial Statement. Article 112 of the Constitution of India lays down that it is a statement of the estimated expenditure and receipts of the Government for a particular year. The term budget is not mentioned in the constitution. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Department of Economic Affairs in the Finance Ministry is the nodal body responsible for preparing the Budget. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Budget keeps the account of the finances of the government for the fiscal year (from 1st April to 31st March).
  • The Budget is presented on 1st February (until 2016, it was presented on the last working day of February) so that it can materialise before the commencement of the new financial year which starts on 1st April.
  • In 2017, a 92-year-old tradition was broken when the railway budget was merged with the Union Budget and presented together.
  • The Budget has to be passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect.
  • The Union Budget is divided into Revenue Budget and Capital Budget. For more on these terms, check Union Budget – Important Economic Terms.
  • In the Union Budget, the disbursements and receipts of the government comprise the various types of government funds in India namely, the Consolidated Fund of India, the Contingency Fund and the Public Account.
  • The Economic Survey of India is released ahead of the presentation of the Budget. This document is prepared under the guidance of the Chief Economic Advisor and is presented for discussion in both Houses during the Budget session.

Source: MOF


Consider the following Statements regarding Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)

It is a pioneering initiative of India to protect Indian traditional medicinal knowledge and prevent its misappropriation at International Patent Offices.

It is developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the MINISTRY OF AYUSH.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c)Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: CSIR celebrates 20 years of India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, the first of its kind globally

  • The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has launched a new campaign of highlighting 80 success stories from the organization as it is set to turn 80 years old in 2022.
  • This campaign was launched recently as CSIR’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) completes two decades of safeguarding India’s Traditional Knowledge

About Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)

  • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is a pioneering initiative of India to protect Indian traditional medicinal knowledge and prevent its misappropriation at International Patent Offices.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Traditional Knowledge (TK) is a valuable yet vulnerable asset to indigenous and local communities who depend on TK for their livelihood.
  • The healthcare needs of more than 70% population and livelihood of millions of people in India is dependent on traditional medicine. Globally too there has been renewed attention and interest in the use of traditional medicine increasing its vulnerability to exploitation.
  • Set up in 2001, as a collaboration between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the MINISTRY OF AYUSH.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Apart from that, the non-patent database serves to foster modern research based on traditional knowledge, as it simplifies access to this vast knowledge of remedies or practices.
  • The TKDL contains documentation of publicly available traditional knowledge (TK) that:
  • relates to Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Yoga
  • is in digitized format
  • is available in five languages: English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1693143


Pattachitra is a picture painted on a piece of cloth based in the states of:

Tamilnadu

Gujarat

Andhra Pradesh

West Bengal

Answer: (d)West Bengal

Explanation:

In NEWS: Mann kibaat: PM cites example of BhagyashreeSahu’s efforts in promoting ‘Pattachitra’ painting

  • During his Mann kiBaatprogramme, the Prime Minister cited the example of BhagyashreeSahu, young student from Rourkela in Odisha for her keen interest in ‘Pattachitra’ painting.

About Pattachitra

  • The name Pattachitra has evolved from the Sanskrit words patta, meaning canvas, and chitra, meaning picture. Pattachitra is thus a painting done on canvas, and is manifested by rich colourful application, creative motifs and designs, and portrayal of simple themes, mostly mythological in depiction.
  • Patta means cloth, and Chitrameans a picture. Hence, Pattachitra is a picture painted on a piece of cloth. It is based in the states of West Bengal and Odisha. Hence option (d) is correct

Odisha tradition:

  • It is centered aroundPuri. Almost all of the Chitrakar community hails from a small village in Puri district called Raghurajpur.
  • These paintings are based on Hindu mythology and specially inspired by Jagannath and Vaishnava sect.
  • All colors used in the Paintings are natural and paintings.

Bengal tradition: It is centredaroundKalighat (in Kolkata). Theme is Not much devotional.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Mann-ki-baat%3A-PM-cites-example-of-Bhagyashree-Sahu-for-her-keen-interest-in-%26%2339%3BPattachitra%26%2339%3B-painting&id=408995


The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined

The separation of power between the judiciary and the legislature.

The jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments.

The powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy

None of the above

Answer: (b) The jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments.

Explanation:

GOI Act,1919, relaxed the central control over the provinces by demarcating and separating the central and provincial subjects. The central and provincial legislatures were authorised to make laws on their respective list of subjects.