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Daily Prelims Test – 01_August_2021

Consider the following statements regarding Raja Mircha:

  • It is the type of chilli crop which is considered as the world’s hottest based on the Scoville Heat Units.
  • This is geographically identified to the state of Andhra Pradesh.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nagaland’s Raja Mircha exported to Europe for first time

  • In a major boost to exports of Geographical Indications (GI)products from the north-eastern region, a consignment of ‘Raja Mircha’ also referred as king chilli from Nagaland was today exported to London via Guwahati under assistance from APEDA
  • The consignment was sourced from Tening, part of Peren district, Nagaland. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • Exporting fresh King Chilli posed a challenge earlier because of its highly perishable nature.

King Chilli

  • King Chilli is considered as the world’s hottest based on the Scoville Heat Units (SHUs). Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is constantly on the top five in the list of the world’s hottest chilies based on the SHUs. 
  • It is known for its distinct aroma and flavour.
  • It is also referred to as Bhoot Jolokia and Ghost pepper. 
  • It got GI certification in 2008.
  • It belongs to the genus Capsicum of the family

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/nagalands-raja-mircha-exported-to-europe-for-first-time-101627537013861.html

Consider the following statements regarding Academic Bank of Credit:

  • It is a virtual storehouse that will keep records of academic credits secured by a student.
  • It is drafted on the lines of the National Academic Depository.
  • It is going to be implemented based on the National Policy of Education, 1986.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 1 and 3 only
  4. d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM to roll out academic credit bank for almost 300 top institutions

  • On the first anniversary of the National Education Policy (NEP)2020, the Centre plans to officially roll out some initiatives promised in the policy, such as a credit transfer system that will allow multiple entry and exit options in higher education, as well as engineering programmes in regional languages. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • The Academic Bank of Credit will be rolled out for students in over 290 top institutions from the current academic year 2021-22 onwards.
  • Academic Bank of Credit
  • Academic Bank of Credit referred to as ABC is a virtual storehouse that will keep records of academic credits secured by a studentHence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is drafted on the lines of the National Academic DepositoryHence statement (2) is correct.
  • It will function as a commercial bank where students will be the customers and ABC will offer several services to these students.
  • Students will have to open an Academic Bank Account and every account holder would be provided with a unique id and Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).
  • The academic accounts of students will have credits awarded by higher education Institutes to students for the courses they are pursuing.
  • However, ABC will not accept any credit course document directly from the students, and its institutes will make the deposits in students’ accounts.

Functions of ABCs

  • ABC will be responsible for opening, closing, and validating the academic accounts of students.
  • It will also perform tasks including credit verification, credit accumulation, credit transfer/redemption of students, and promotion of the ABC among the stakeholders.
  • The courses will also include online and distance mode courses offered through National Schemes like SWAYAM, NPTEL, V-Lab etc.
  • The validity of these academic credits earned by students will be up to seven years. The validity can also vary based on the subject or discipline. Students can redeem these credits.
  • For instance, if a student has accumulated 100 credits which are equivalent to say one year and they decide to drop out.
  • Once they decide to rejoin they can redeem this credit and seek admission directly in the second year at any university. The validity will be up to seven years, hence, students will have to rejoin within seven years.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/pm-to-roll-out-academic-credit-bank-for-almost-300-top-institutions/article35593569.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Earth Overshoot Day:

  • It marks the date when humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year.
  • The first Earth Overshoot Day was December 19, 1987.
  • It is hosted and calculated by the World Meteorological Organisation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 3 only
  4. d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Earth Overshoot Day’ has shifted back to July 29, says WWF

  • This means humanity has used all biological resources that the Earth regenerates during the entire year by July 29, the same date as in 2019
  • Humanity has again used up all biological resources that our planet regenerates during the entire
  • This is worryingly the same date that the world reached two years ago in 2019. This means that the modest gains accrued from the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as far as humanity’s ecological footprint is concerned have been lost.
  • The carbon footprint of transportation will be lower this year than pre-pandemic levels, according to WWF. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from road transport and domestic air travel will be five per cent below 2019 levels.
  • CO2 emissions due to international aviation will be 33 per cent below 2019 levels. This is according to estimates from the International Energy Agency.

Earth Overshoot Day:

  • It marks the date when humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Previously it was known as Ecological Debt Day.
  • For the rest of the year, society operates in ecological overshoot by drawing down local resource stocks and accumulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • The first Earth Overshoot Day was December 19, 1987. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is hosted and calculated by Global Footprint Network, an international research organization. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • It calculates the number of days of that year that Earth’s biocapacity suffices to provide for humanity’s Ecological Footprint.
  • Global Footprint Network:
  • It is an independent think tank originally based in the United States, Belgium and Switzerland.
  • It was founded in 2003 as a charitable not-for-profit organization in each of those three countries.
  • The organization is headquartered in Oakland, California.
  • It develops and promotes tools for advancing sustainability, including the ecological footprint and biocapacity.
  • Its goal is to create a future where all humans can live well, within the means of one planet Earth.
  • The Network brings together over 70 partner organizations.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/environment/-earth-overshoot-day-has-shifted-back-to-july-29-says-wwf-78144

Consider the following statements regarding Project BOLD:

  • It seeks to create bamboo-based green patches in arid and semi-arid land zones of the country.
  • It is an initiative of Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: KVIC & BSF Launch Project BOLD in Jaisalmer to Prevent Desertification and Support Rural Economy

  • In the first of its kind efforts to develop green cover in the Indian deserts of Rajasthan, Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) planted 1000 bamboo saplings at Tanot village in Jaisalmer, in collaboration with the Border Security Force
  • Project BOLD was launched on 4th July from a tribal village Nichla Mandwa in Udaipur district in Rajasthan with a plantation of 5000 saplings of special bamboo species over 25 bigha of arid land.

Project BOLD

  • Under the project 5000 saplings of special bamboo species – BambusaTulda and BambusaPolymorpha from Assam – have been planted over 16 acres of vacant arid Gram Panchayat land of village NichlaMandwa.
  • It is the first of its kind exercise in India. It seeks to create bamboo-based green patches in arid and semi-arid land zones. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It has been launched as part of KVIC’s“Khadi Bamboo Festival” to celebrate 75 years of independence “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav”. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Benefits of Project BOLD:

  • It will help in reducing the land degradation percentage of the country.
  • It will be a haven of sustainable development and food security.
  • The bamboo plantation program in Udaipur will boost self-employment in the region.
  • It will benefit a large number of women and unemployed youths in the region by connecting them to skill development programs.
  • It can provide livelihood opportunities for locals and tribal men and women in the form of handicrafts, making bamboo furniture, culinary items, paper, bags, handbags, textile, household items, to name a few.
  • Economic activities from Bamboo such as construction purposes, will save locals the cost of timber, bricks, and steel. 

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1739793

Consider the following statements regarding Indian leopard:

  • In India, the leopard is found in all forest types except desert and mangroves of Sundarbans.
  • It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India’s leopard count jumps 63% in just 4 years

  • India’s official leopard count increased 63 per cent from 2014-2018, a new report released by the Government of India July 29, 2021 — World Tiger Day
  • Forest officials estimated the number of leopards in tiger range states of India in 2018. There were 12,852 leopards in the country at that time (Standard error range 12,172-13,535), the statement said. This was an increase from the 7,910 (Standard error range 6,566-9,181) leopards counted in 2014
  • More than 60% increase in population has been recorded.
  • The States of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra recorded the highest leopard estimates at 3,421, 1,783 and 1,690 respectively.

Indian leopard:

  • The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent. These are the smallest of the big cats, known for their ability to adapt to a variety of habitats. 
  • In India, the leopard is found in all forest types, from tropical rainforests to temperate deciduous and alpine coniferous forests. It is also found in dry scrubs and grasslands, the only exception being desert and the mangroves of SundarbansHence statement (1) is correct.
  • Its range stretches from the Indus river in the west, the Himalayas in the north, and all the way to the lower course of the Brahmaputra in the east. 
  • Conservation Status: 
  • IUCN Red List: VulnerableHence statement (2) is correct.
  • Wildlife (Protection)Act,1972: Schedule I 
  • CITES: Appendix I 

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/india-s-leopard-count-jumps-63-in-just-4-years-78184

Consider the following statements regarding Khagolshala Asteroid Search Campaign:

  • It is an initiative of Indian Space Research Organisation.
  • .2 Under the campaign, high-quality astronomical data sets are distributed to students for analysis and identification of asteroids.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya students detect asteroids

  • Eight asteroids detected by sixteen students of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, under the Khagolshala Asteroid Search Campaign 2021 were conferred the “Provisional Status” by the International Astronomical Search Collaboration.
  • Khagolshala Asteroid Search Campaign or KASC trains students of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas to detect asteroids.

Khagolshala Asteroid Search Campaign:

  • Khagolshala Asteroid Search Campaign(KASC) is an initiative of the Office of Principal Scientific Adviser, Government of India, and SPACE Foundation. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • The campaign is the India chapter of an international student research program that has got students involved in the search for asteroids.
  • Under the campaign, high-quality astronomical data sets are distributed to students through the PANSTARRS telescope for analysis and identification of asteroidsHence statement (2) is correct.
  • The students then analyze the data using software, which then leads to potential discoveries.
  • These observations feed into the Near-Earth Object(NEO) data being compiled by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).
  • As part of the campaign, Space India has established Khagolshala Astronomy and Space Education Labs (ASELs) across 20 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas till date.

Asteroids:

  • Asteroids are small, rocky objects that orbit the Sun. Although asteroids orbit the Sun-like planets, they are much smaller than planets.
  • There are lots of asteroidsin our solar system. Most of them live in the main asteroid belt—a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1739849

Consider the following statements regarding Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards:

  • It is a set of criteria that allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.
  • India has announced that the 14 Tiger Reserves in India have received the accreditation of the Global Conservation Assured| Tiger Standards.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientific knowledge with traditional knowledge and people’s participation integral to conservation of Flora and Fauna of the Country

  • The Environment Minister also released the report ‘Status of Leopards, Co-predators and Megaherbivores-2018’ stating that the report is a testimony to the fact that conservation of tigers leads to the conservation of the entire
  • The event also showcased, the 14 Tiger Reserves in India which received the accreditation of the Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS). Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The 14 tiger reserves which have been accredited are Manas, Kaziranga and Orang in Assam, Satpura, Kanha and Panna in Madhya Pradesh, Pench in Maharashtra, Valmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar, Dudhwa in Uttar Pradesh,Sunderbans in West Bengal, Parambikulam in Kerala, Bandipur Tiger Reserve of Karnataka and Mudumalai and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu.

Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS)

  • It is officially launched in 2013.
  • It sets minimum standards for effective management of target speciesand encourages assessment of these standards in relevant conservation areas.
  • It is a set of criteria which allows tiger sitesto check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • It is aglobally accepted conservation tool that sets best practices and standards to manage tigers and assessments to benchmark progress.
  • Importance of Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS)
  • The protected areas are a good strategy for retaining forest cover, however their role in protecting wildlife depends on the quality of management.
  • The studies show that tiger numbers can continue to decline in protected areas, particularly due to bushmeat (tiger prey) hunting or the poaching of tigers themselves for trophies, traditional medicines and other illegal activities.
  • Until CA|TS, there has not been a set of criteria which not only provide clarity on management of tiger sites, but also encourage further development and sharing of best practice across the tiger range countries.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1740353

Consider the following statements regarding EOS-03:

  • It is a geo-imaging satellite for Earth Observation from Geostationary Orbit.
  • It is developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Geo-imaging satellite EOS-03 scheduled for launch in third quarter of 2021, says Jitendra Singh

  • Geo-imaging satellite for earth observation EOS-03, which would enable near real-time monitoring of natural disasters like floods and cyclones, is scheduled for launch in the third quarter of 2021
  • In addition to natural disasters, EOS-03 would also enable monitoring of water bodies, crops, vegetation condition, forest cover changes

Geo-imaging satellite “EOS-03”:

  • It is a geo-imaging satellitefor Earth Observation from Geostationary Orbit. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The technology is developed by theIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It consists of capabilities including:
  • Imaging the whole country4-5 times daily
  • In addition to natural disasters, EOS-03 would also enable monitoring of water bodies, crops, vegetation condition, forest cover changes
  • It would enable near-real time monitoring of natural disasters like floods & cyclones.

Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV):

  • It is ideal for the on-demand, quick turn-around launch of small satellites.
  • The major technologies developed as part of the realisation of the SSLV are flexible nozzle control with electro-mechanical actuators for all stages, miniaturized avionics and a velocity trimming module in the upper stage for precise satellite injection.
  • It is a cost-effective, three stage and all-solid launch vehicle with a payload capabilityof 500 kg to 500 km planar orbit or 300 kg to Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/geo-imaging-satellite-eos-03-scheduled-for-launch-in-third-quarter-of-2021-says-jitendra-singh/article35606256.ece

Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary belongs to which of the following states in India?

  1. a) West Bengal
  2. b) Karnataka
  3. c) Gujarat
  4. d) Odisha

Answer: (d) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS: Environmentalists concerned over plan to auction mining blocks in Odisha

  • The proposed auctioning of 11 mines in Odisha has evoked sharp reactions among environmentalists and citizen groups, who fear that the move could prove disastrous for wildlife as well as the ecosystem.
  • Karlapat bauxite block, which is going to be auctioned, is the most controversial of all as it shares its border with Karlapat Sanctuary in Kalahandi district.
  • Karlapat is a designated elephant corridor, besides being home to a range of wildlife.
  • The mining would dry up 300 large and small streams flowing down from the sanctuary.
  • The biggest concern in the latest auction bid is opening of virgin areas for mining.
  • Wildlife would be pushed into an existential crisis if the government goes ahead with further mining.

Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • It is a wildlife sanctuary located in Kalahandi district and a popular tourist attraction of Odishain India. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • It lies within the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion.
  • This sanctuary is home to many wildlife species like tiger, leopard, sambar, nilgai, barking deer, mouse deer, a wide variety of birds like green munia, Great Eared-nightjar and various reptiles.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/environmentalists-concerned-over-plan-to-auction-mining-blocks-in-odisha/article35620313.ece

What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?

  1. a) Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto
  2. b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government
  3. c) Foundation of Muslim League
  4. d) Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to the elected as the President of the Indian National Congress

Answer: (b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government

Explanation:

  • In 1907, the extremists wanted either Tilak or Lajpat Rai to be president, so when Rasbehari Ghose was announced as president, the extremists resorted to violence. Hence Surat Split happened. Hence option (b) is correct.