SYLLABUS: GENERAL STUDIES –GS-2-   Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

QUESTION: What are the legal hurdles that exist for a State to provide reservation beyond the stipulated legal limits. Examine considering the recent case of Rajasthan. (250 words, 15 marks).

Approach: Introduce –enumerate the legal hurdles in the constitution one by one – examine them – whether reservation is possible – conclude.

The Rajasthan government’s move to give 5% quota to Gujjars and four other castes under special backward classes and 14% to economically backward classes has to cross many a legal hurdle before it can be implemented.

Legal hurdles:

The Rajasthan quota laws can still survive if the result of both or any of the two tests is in the negative.

But what makes things difficult for the Rajasthan government is that the SC has expanded the ambit of the basic structure doctrine by placing Article 15 and Article 16 (quota in education and jobs, respectively) on a par with Article 14 (right to equality) and 21 (right to life and liberty), saying, “Fundamental rights are interconnected…”

Before these laws are tested in a constitutional court, they must be placed in the Ninth Schedule through a constitutional amendment.

Source:”Hindustan Times”.

SYLLABUS: GS-2- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Question: Recent findings show a rise in nuclear and arms race in the world. Discuss its impacts on India’s security and its position on nuclear disarmament.

Approach: Introduce –explain how nuclear arms race is rising around the world – what are its impacts on India and its security – discuss and provide a way forward in this regard – conclude.

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty:


An international organisation to verify the CTBT was established in Vienna.

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) runs an elaborate verification system built around a network of seismic, radionuclide, Infra sound and hydro acoustic (underwater) monitoring stations.

Changing power structure:

Arms control:

Current context:

Impacts of all these:

Source:” “.