GS II Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

There are increased incidents of urban fires in India, discuss the causes behind such accidents and steps taken for the management of Urban fire.

Fire service is a state subject and has been included as municipal function in the XII schedule of the Constitution. The municipal corporations and local bodies are responsible for providing fire services in many states. According to NCRB data 48 Indians dies every day due to fire accidents, of those who died, 62% were women.


Steps Taken for Management of Urban Fire:

  1. The Standing Fire Advisory Council has laid down norms for establishments of fire stations, equipment, manpower etc.
  2. Fire services in India comes under the Twelfth Schedule of the Constitution of India and it comes under the domain of Municipalities

National Building Code of India:

  1. The code incorporates administrative and technical provisions which can be adopted by the States and local bodies to revise and revamp their building bye laws
  1. It covers detailed guidelines for construction, maintenance and fire safety of the structure
  2. It is published by Bureau of Indian Standards

NDMA guidelines:

  1. Identifying hazardous industries and fire prone areas and preparing a complete plan on total requirements of manpower and equipment for the entire State
  2. Adequate number of fire stations, tackling water scarcity, improving coverage in rural areas etc.
  3. Employing LIDAR-based (Light Detection and Ranging) technologies that can be used to aerially keep a track of setbacks and the presence of fire exits.
  4. Organise the community in fire-fighting capabilities by providing a local platform for training, helping them and getting equipped.


  1. Building awareness among citizens about fire prevention and protection measures by organising fire-fighting workshops periodically in localities with the involvement of elected representatives.
  2. Considering the increasing vulnerabilities to fire all over the country, it is of utmost importance that every state enacts its own Fire Act so that fire vulnerabilities in the state are adequately dealt with and unacceptable loss of life and property is prevented
  3. Certification of facilities through third-party audit should be made compulsory to eliminate conflicts of interest involving official agencies.

~Source The Hindu norms/article65918069.ece

GS II Structure, organisation and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary— Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Whatdo the recently notified rules of the Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022 state? Explain the concerns raised.

The Act seeks to repeal the Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, which is over 100 years old the old Act’s scope was limited to capturing of finger impression, foot-print impressions and photographs of convicted prisoners and certain categories of arrested and non-convicted persons on the orders of a Magistrate.

Criminal procedure (identification) Act:


Way Forward:

  1. Depriving law enforcement agencies of the use of the latest technologies would be a grave disservice to victims of crimes, and the nation at large. Besides better scrutiny and data protection law, measures need to be taken for better implementation of the law as well.
  2. The need is to have more experts to collect measurements from the scene of crime, more forensic labs, and equipment to analyse them to identify possible accused involved in a criminal case.

~Source The Hindu criminals/article65919414.ece