UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2-India and its neighborhood- relations.

Chinese aggression along the Line of Actual Control has been a recurrent phenomenon. However, the recent aggression in the Galwan valley is entirely different.  Since Xi Jinping took over, the nature and kind of intrusions have altered. They have become more firm, and appears premeditated and planned

The stand-off in Eastern Ladakh is in at least five key areas where India and China have had traditional differences on the perception of the Line of Actual Control or LAC in the region.

The present tension came when reports of skirmishes between the soldiers were reported in the Pangong Lake region on May 5 and May 6. 

Since the clashes in the Pangong Lake, there have been multiple reports of intrusions by Chinese infantry soldiers in areas which include

  1. 1. Demchok to the South
  2. 2. the Fingers region on the Eastern banks of the high-altitude Pangong Lake
  3. 3. the Galwan River basin
  4. 4. Gogra post.

Rationale behind the Chinese escalation:

China may have viewed all these as India upping the ante. All these must be viewed in the broader context of a long-term geopolitical world view China has for the region.

Further internal issues like,

Having given up its traditional slogan of ‘peaceful rise’, China, under Mr. Xi, is beginning to assert itself as the next superpower.

Daulat beg Oldi road


Subtle political messaging in Beijing’s LAC aggression:

Doklam redux:

Limited scope military expeditions:

Inflicting small-scale military defeats:

Picking a direct fight with India might lead to an undesirable military escalation.

This does not suit Beijing’s interests. But carrying out minor military expeditions with the objective of inflicting small-scale military defeats on India is beneficial for it.

This would suit the Chinese political and military leadership;

  1. 1. they are cost effective
  2. 2. less escalatory
  3. 3. The message gets conveyed.

India should not overlook these manoeuvres as the Beijing would be tempted to repeat them.

Is Chinese adventurism unlimited:

Time has come for India to checkmate Beijing’s military aggression even as it maintains a robust economic relationship.

India should get more serious about finalising a border agreement with China: the bigger the power differential between India and China, the more concessions Beijing would demand from New Delhi to settle the dispute.

Source:” Indian Express“.

Possible UPSC CSE Mains Question:

In recent days, the nature of Chinese aggression along the Line of Actual control has changed. Will this be a permanent situation henceforth? How could India handle such situations?