UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-3- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Biodiversity – Aichi Targets
- The world has failed to achieve even one of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets), as per the latest Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 (GBO-5) report.
- It was signed by 170 countries and regions through the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
- The conservation targets, which aim to protect the world’s imperiled flora and fauna, were formulated in Japan in 2010.
- The convention is currently ironing out its post-2020 framework, which will be adopted at its next meeting in Kunming, China, in 2021.
- The new framework will create a new set of targets to remedy the Aichi goals’ failures, and turn things around.
- National governments failed to meet the CBD goals despite an earlier warning from United Nations that one million species could disappear within decades, widening the Holocene extinction.
- Holocene is the planet’s sixth mass extinction event, driven by human activity.
Why did they fail:
They failed because of two reasons.
- Most countries struggled to balance conservation with the needs of their growing populations and economy (it is the same policy dilemma that is hobbling the fight against the climate crisis).
- Positive conservation steps were upended by perverse incentives which enable destruction — for instance, fossil fuels need mining and overfishing destroys coral reefs, all of which has an impact on preservation.
|Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society · Target 1: By 2020, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. · Target 2: By 2020, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems. · Target 3: By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions. · Target 4: By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits. Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use · Target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. · Target 6: By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits. · Target 7: By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. · Target 8: By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity. · Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. · Target 10: By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning. Strategic Goal C: Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity · Target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider land- scape and seascapes. · Target 12: By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained. · Target 13: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity. Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services. · Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable. · Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification. · Target 16: By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation. Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building · Target 17: By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan. · Target 18: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels. · Target 19: By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied. · Target 20: By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan 2011 – 2020 from all sources and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization should increase substantially from the current levels.|
What is needed:
- The GBO-5 comes out at a crucial time when, amid the Covid-19 pandemic, the world is being forced to rethink its development objectives and its relationship with nature.
- Business-as-usual will only plunge the globe into deeper crises, given the complex interdependence of all elements in nature.
- A stronger CBD framework must push national governments to act and avoid a natural catastrophe that can endanger human lives.
Source:” Hindustan Times”.
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