UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-3- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing..

Agriculture Research & Development

Agriculture and allied sectors account for approximately 14 per cent of India’s GDP, and 50 per cent of its entire workforce is involved in these sectors. India is now the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the major staple food of the world. In the last few years, our country has shown a steady annual increase in kilograms per hectare produce for certain agricultural items. 

R&D in Agriculture: The Ground Reality 

Agri R&D And Extension:

Producer Support Estimate :

    The Producer Support Estimate (PSE) is an indicator of the annual monetary value of gross transfers from consumers and taxpayers to support agricultural producers, measured at farm gate level, arising from policy measures, regardless of their nature, objectives or impacts on farm production or income.  

Direct income support schemes:

Finally, India should take measures like investing more in agri-R&D and innovations, improving incentives for farmers by carrying out agri-marketing reforms, and collapsing input subsidies into direct income support on per hectare basis. This could put India’s agriculture on a high growth trajectory.

In spite of successful R&D initiatives around crop cultivation and protection and huge investments from the private sector, a majority of farmers in India have not been able to get optimum yield in the absence of expert scientific advices.The need of the hour is to bridge the gap between research and practice.

Source:” Indian Express.”


Assess how far Research and Development is adopted in Indian Agriculture. How could it be improved?