UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-3- Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and
irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.


The Centre recently, approved three major legislative reforms through ordinances intended to create “one India, one agriculture market” while also attracting private investments in a sector hamstrung by varying regulations. This will unlock the growth potential of farm incomes by allowing unrestricted sale of produce.

Essential Commodities Act:

Issues with ESA:

Changes to the Essential Commodities Act, 1955:

It will “deregulate” various agricultural commodities like cereals, pulses, oilseeds, edible oils, onion and potatoes from stock limits, except in case of natural calamities like famine.  


What about consumer interest?


Under the Madhya Pradesh Mandi Act, only traders need to get a licence for a particular mandi and procure agricultural produce there, whereas the farmer is free to sell their crop wherever they want.”

APMC and agri-mandis:

APMC issue:

Amendments made:


National Agriculture Market – one nation one market:National Agriculture Market (eNAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.Integration of APMCs across the country through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-India trade in agriculture commodities, providing better price discovery through transparent auction process based on quality of produce along with timely online payment.

Contract farming and price assurance:

Road ahead:

Source:” Times of India“.

Possible UPSC CSE Mains Question:

Agricultural market reforms are essential in making farming remunerative. Examine the statement considering the recently rolled out agricultural reforms.