UPSC CSE Mains Syllabus: GS-2- Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

The prejudices, which pervade every aspect of life, from access to basic goods, to education and employment, are directly discernible. For eg: in the recent death of George Floyd. But, on other occasions, the discrimination is indirect and even unintended. This is true of private associations or groupings among societal members, where exclusion of some people is carried out subtly.

Provisions under Article 15:

Article 15(1)

It prohibits the state from discriminating against a citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth.

Article 15 (2)

Article 15(2) elaborates that no Indian citizen can be discriminated against on basis of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth. It states that no citizen shall be denied access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and palaces of public entertainment. It also adds that no citizen shall be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

Article 15 (3) and (4)

The article cannot be used as an argument against the special provisions made for women, children or any other backward classes. “Nothing in this article or in clause ( 2 ) of Article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes,” the article states.

Private discrimination:

This could be explained through a case,

Scope of Article 15:

Legislation against unfair discrimination:

Attempts at change

Way forward:

 Source:” The Hindu“.


The time has come for India to enact a law that will help ameliorate and reverse our deep-rooted discrimination in the society. Comment considering the right to equality under the constitution.